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31 Cards in this Set

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What are joints or articulations?
Sites where two or more bones meet.
Every bone in the body forms a joint with at least one other bone, with one exception. What is it?
The Hyoid bone (front of neck).
How can joints be classified?
Structurally - focusing on the material binding the bones together and the presence of a joint cavity, and functionally - amount of movement allowed at the joint.
Name the three types of joints and describe their structure and function.
Fibrous - joints are joined by fibrous tissue, no cavity present and essentially no movement. Cartilaginous - bones are joined by cartilage, no joint cavity, slight movement. Synovial - bones are seperated by a joint cavity containing fluid, permits substantial movement.
Which type of joint makes up the majority in the body?
Synovial.
Name the six types of synovial joints.
Plane joints
Hinge joints
Pivot joints
Condyloid(ellipsoid) joints
Saddle joints
Ball and Socket joints
Which is the most freely moveable joint?
Ball and Socket joint
Which joint allows only a short slipping or gliding movement?
Plane joint
Which biaxial joint permits all angular motions?
Condyloid joint
Which joint allows only the movement of one bone around its own long axis or against another bone?
Pivot joint
Which joint is similar to the condyloid joint but allows greater freedom of movement due to each articular surface having both concave and connvex areas?
Saddle joint
What type of synovial joint is the the knee or elbow joint?
Hinge joint
What is the anatomical position?
It is the standard body position that provides an initial reference point to help describe body parts and position.
the body is erect(in extension), head eyes and toes forward, upper limbs by the side, palms facing forward.
What is prone?
Lying face down
What is supine?
Lying face up
What is the midline of the body?
It is an imaginary line that passes through the middle of the body.
There are six general body movements generated by the body, what are they?
Extension
Flexion
Abduction
Adduction
Circumduction
Rotation
What is Flexion?
Flexion is movement that decreases the angle of a joint and brings the two articulating bones closer together.
What is Extension?
Extension is movement that increases the angle of a joint
What is the difference between abduction and adduction?
Abduction moves the limb away from the midline of the body and Adduction moves the limb toward the midline.
Circumduction is the combination of which four movements to form a circle?
Flexion, Extension, Abduction and Adduction.
Which two synovial joints are the only ones that allow rotation?
Ball and Socket and Pivot joints
Which joints allow Flexion and Extension?
Hinge, Pivot, Condyloid, Saddle and Ball and Socket.
Which joints allow Abduction and Adduction?
Condyloid, Ball and Socket and Saddle.
As well as general movements there are 13 special movements the body allows in certain parts of the body, name these.
Supination
Pronation
Inversion
Eversion
Planter Flexion
Dorsiflexion
Protraction
Retraction
Elevation
Depression
Ulnar Deviation
Radial Deviation
Opposition
What is supination and pronation and what part of the body do these movements belong to?
Supination is movement of the forearm so the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly ie, the anatomical position.
Pronation is the movement of the forarm so the palm faces posteriorly of inferiorly. So the movement is in the forearm.
What is Inversion and Eversion and what body part do they relate to?
Inversion is movement of the foot so that the sole is turned medially ie. the soles face each other and Eversion refers to the movement of the foot so that the sole is turned laterally. Movement occurs at the foot/ankle.
What are Planter Flexion and Dorsiflexion and what body part do they refer to?
Planter Flexion refers to movementof the ankle so teh toes point inferiorly as in standing on your tippy-toes. Dorsiflexion refers to movement of the ankle so the toes point superiorly as in standing on your heels. The movement occurs the the foot/ankle.
What is the difference between Protraction and Retraction?
Protraction is the anterior movement of the mandible or scapula in a transverse plane and Retraction is the posterior movement of the mandible/scapula in a transverse plane.
How would the Jaw protract and retract?
The mandible protracts by projecting the jaw forward and retracts by returning the mandible backward.
How does the scapula protract and retract?
The scapula protracts by propelling the arm forward and retracts by 'squaring up' the shoulders.