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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Raises eyebrows in surprise, wrinkles forehead skin.

Depressor Anguli Oris
Pulls down corner of mouth.

Wrinkles nose.

Which arch do all muscles of facial expression arise from?
Pharyngeal Arch 2

Common innervation VII

Special Visceral Efferent (SVE)
Orbicularis Oculi
Orbital part: Tightly closes eyes.

Palpebral part: Blinking, spreads lacrimal fluid.

Draws down corner of the mouth.

Orbicularis Oris
Surrounds mouth, puckers, protrudes.

Levator Labii Superioris
Elevates upper lip

Depressor labii inferioris -
Depresses lower lip

Levator anguli oris
Elevates corner of mouth

Depressor anguli oris
Depresses corner of mouth

Zygomaticus major and minor
Pulls up corner of the mouth

Protrudes the lower lip

Bony origin from alveolar process of maxilla and mandible. Fibrous origin from pterygomandibular raphe.

Parotid duct pierces.

Compresses the cheek.

VII (muscle of facial expression)
Longus Colli/Cervicis Muscle
Prevertebral muscle.

Originates from the upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae. Inserts into cervical vertebrae more superiorly. The highest extent of longus colli attaches to the anterior tubercle of the atlas.

Flexes the neck (with the scalenes and SCM).

Innervated by ventral rami of cervical nerves.
Longus Capitis Muscle
Prevertebral muscle.

Originates from the cervical vertebrae and inserts into the basilar part of the occipital bone.

Innervated by ventral rami of cervical nerves.
Rectus Capitis Anterior and Lateralis Muscles
Prevertebral muscle.

Rectus Capitis Anterior - From the lateral mass of the atlas to the basilar part of the occipital bone.

Rectus Capitis Lateralis - Runs from the transverse process of the atlas to the jugular process of the occipital bone.

Innervated by ventral rami of cervical nerves.
Scalene Muscles
All 3 scalene muscles originate from transverse processes of cervical vertebrae.

Anterior - Inserts into scalene tubercle of rib 1.

Middle - Inserts into the upper surface of rib 1.

Posterior - Inserts onto outer margin of rib 2.

Flex the neck (with longus colli and SCM). Unilateral flexion of the neck to one side. Elevate the first two ribs if the neck is fixed.

Innervated by ventral rami of cervical nerves.
Flexion of the neck
SCM, scalene, longus Collie
Flexion of the neck
Movement at AO joint.

Longus capitis, rectus capitis anterior.

SCM, Supra and infra hyoid muscles indirectly by pulling down the hyoid and mandible.
Extension of the neck
Movement at AO joint.

Suboccipital muscles at the back of the neck. Rectus capitis posterior major and minor, superior oblique and other muscles like the trapezius.
Tilting the head to one side
Rectus capitis lateralis.
Rotation of the head at AA joints
Turning your head to left or right is caused by contracting the SCM on the opposite side.

Suboccipital muscles and some deep muscles in the back of the neck (like the inferior oblique) cause (lateral) rotation to the same side.

Long transverse processes of the atlas gives mechanical advantage to the inferior oblique for doing this.

Rectus capitis posterior major causes rotation to the same side, as does splenius capitis, and longissimus capitis.
What structures run anterior to the anterior scalene muscle?
Phrenic nerve.

"Clamped down" by suprascapular and the transverse cervical arteries from the thyrocervical trunk.

Ascending cervical branch from inferior thyroid artery.

Possibly inferior thyroid artery.

Subclavian vein just in front of the muscle's insertion.
What structures run between the middle and anterior scalene muscles?
The 2nd part of the subclavian artery.

The brachial plexus.
Where is the interscalene triangle?
Formed by the anterior, posterior scalene muscles and the 1st rib.

An extra cervical rib can compress the brachial plexus and subclavian artery.