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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
dendrite
branches of cell body that recieve stimulation
axon
stem of nerve, conducts impulse
axon terminal/
neurotransmitter vesicles
at end of axon, transmits signal by releasing acetocholine
action potential
negative wave of electricity that depolarized the membrane
threshold
minimal stimulus needed to produce the action potential
acetocholine
neurotransmitter that jump the synaptic gap
calcium 2+ ions
released when t-tubules are depolarized, cause tropomin and tropomyosin to move which exposes mysoin binding sites
A Band
part of sarcomere that is the myosin, doesnt change length during contraction
I band
part of sarcomere that is the action, changes length during contraction
Z line
runs down through I band, connects myofibrils
H zone
lighter middle region of a-badn with no actin overlap
myosin crossbridges
connect with actin to pull fibers across one another, bind to certain sites that have been filled with calcium. not simultneous
actin
2 parts: stringy tropomyosin
globby tropomin

thin filament
red/slow muscle
sustained activity, fatigue resistant. lots of capillaries. aerobic atp production
red/fast muscle
intermediate
white/fast
fatigue fast, very strong short bursts of activity. few cappilaries, anerobic
aerobic energy equation
2 ATP + C6H12O6 + 02 with enzymes
CO2 + H20 + 38 ATP
anaerobic energy lactic acid fermentation
2 ATP + C6H12O6 with enzymes
CH3CH2COOH + 4 ATP
anaerobic energy ETHYL ALCOHOL FERMENTATION acid fermentation
2 ATP + C6H12O6 with enzymes
C2H5OH + 1 ATP
creatin phosphate anaerobic respiration
creatin HE P
with enzymes
creatin + P + energy
sarcoplasmic reticulum
network of tubules and sacs that contain ca2+ ions
all or none
increasing strength of stimulus will not force muscle to contract more
twitch
when stimulus activates only a few motor neurons, so that portion of the muscle contracts and relaxes
tetanic contraction
when muscle is being stimulated so rapidly it cant relax in between and stays iin sustained conraction
tetany/contracture
sustaines prolonged tetanic contraction
H zone
lighter middle region of a-badn with no actin overlap
myosin crossbridges
connect with actin to pull fibers across one another, bind to certain sites that have been filled with calcium. not simultneous
actin
2 parts: stringy tropomyosin
globby tropomin

thin filament
red/slow muscle
sustained activity, fatigue resistant. lots of capillaries. aerobic atp production
red/fast muscle
intermediate
white/fast
fatigue fast, very strong short bursts of activity. few cappilaries, anerobic
aerobic energy equation
2 ATP + C6H12O6 + 02 with enzymes
CO2 + H20 + 38 ATP
anaerobic energy lactic acid fermentation
2 ATP + C6H12O6 with enzymes
CH3CH2COOH + 4 ATP
anaerobic energy ETHYL ALCOHOL FERMENTATION acid fermentation
2 ATP + C6H12O6 with enzymes
C2H5OH + 1 ATP
creatin phosphate anaerobic respiration
creatin HE P
with enzymes
creatin + P + energy
sarcoplasmic reticulum
network of tubules and sacs that contain ca2+ ions
all or none
increasing strength of stimulus will not force muscle to contract more
twitch
when stimulus activates only a few motor neurons, so that portion of the muscle contracts and relaxes
tetanic contraction
when muscle is being stimulated so rapidly it cant relax in between and stays iin sustained conraction
tetany/contracture
sustaines prolonged tetanic contraction
treppe
gradual increase in muscle contraction following repeated stimuli
isometric contraction
length remains the same, tension increases
isotonic contraction
length decreases, tension stays the same
atrophy
a decrease in muscle size and strength due to little or weak use
muscle fatigue
lactic acid build up causes muscle to be painful and fatigue. wall!
myoglobin
in skeletal muscle, responsible for binding O2, makes muscles look red. reduces need for continuous blood supply.
oxygen debt
liver cells change lactic acid back into glucose but needs ATP which is absent during activity, LA accumulates, and oxygen must be paid back later
muscular dystrophy
genetic abnormality, deterioration of muscle
tetanus
caused by bacterium clostriorium tetani which causes muscles to go into tetany
epimysium
membrane covering muscles
perimysium
membrane covering fascicles
synaptic gap
space between motor end plate and muscle membrane