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161 Cards in this Set

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These muscles contract at will to make movements of bone possible. What are these muscles called that cover the skeleton?
Voluntary muscles.
What is the function of the voluntary muscles?
They contract at will to make movements of the bone possible.
They cover the skeleton.
They also cause movements of overlying tissues, as in the face.
What is the function of the voluntary muscles in the face?
They cause movements of overlying tissues, as in the face, where they create the expression of feelings, as shown by smiles and frowns.
What percentage does the skeletal muscle constitute of in a male body?
About 42 percent
What percentage does the skeletal muscle constitute of in a female body?
36 percent
How many types of muscles are there?
There are three types of muscles.
Name the 3 types of muscles
Striated muscle
Smooth, or unstriated muscle
Heart muscle
Define: Striated muscles
Striated muscle reveals patterns when viewed under a microscope. All voluntary muscles are striated.
Define: Smooth, or unstriated muscle
Smooth, or unstriated, muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels, the alimentary tract and the ducts of glands.
Define: Heart muscle
Heart muscle is a specialized type of striated muscle, contracting automatically at a rate regulated by its nerve supply.
What is the size of a muscle fibre?
A muscle fiber can vary in size from fractions of an inch (several millimetres) to over one foot (30 centimeters).
What does a skeletal muscle consist of and what is it called?
Skeletal muscle consists of a tough fibrous sheath called fascia, which is usually connected at one or both ends to bundles of white fibrous tissue – a tendon.
Where will you find fascia?
It is usually connected at one or both ends to bundles of white fibrous tissue – a tendon.
What is the function of tendons?
Tendons anchor muscles to bones and joints
What does a muscle need in order to move bones and joints?
In order to move bones and joints, a muscle must be fixed at its origin, which is nearer the inner aspect of the body and the upper part of a limb.

The other end (the insertion) is attached to a point away from the center of the body and toward the end of a limb.

Some attachments are complex fibrous structures.
What happens when a muscle contracts?
When a muscle contracts, the origin remains stationary and the insertion moves.
Do muscles cross the joint that they move?
Yes. Muscles must cross the joint that they move; some pass over more than one joint, for example, the biceps, which passes over the shoulder and the elbow.
What happens when a muscle contracts?
When a muscle contracts, it shortens and pulls, but cannot push.

As a contraction passes away, the muscle becomes soft and longer.

However, movement cannot take place unless other muscles, having the opposite action, relax-these paired muscles are called antagonists.
Movement cannot take place unless other muscles, having the opposite action, relax. What do we call these paired muscles?
Antagonists
What happens when a muscle contracts?
It shortens and pulls, but cannot push.
As a contraction passes away, the muscle becomes soft and longer
Where does energy for movement come from?
From glycogen, the chief carbohydrate, the chief carbohydrate storage material in animals.
What is the chief carbohydrate storage material in animals called?
Glycogen
Where is glycogen found?
Muscle and liver in animals
Explain how energy is ‘extracted’ / released for movement.
Glycogen is broken down into carbon dioxide and water with the release of energy through a process of oxidation, in which oxygen is consumed.
When and how is lactic acid produced
During leisurely activity, enough oxygen is available, but during violent exercise, there is often not enough oxygen , and lactic acid is produced instead of carbon dioxide.
How is lactic acid produced?
During violet exercise, when there is not enough oxygen, lactic acid is produced in stead of carbon dioxide
What happens when lactic acid in muscle tissue builds up?
It gives rise to cramps and fatigue.
A muscle's name usually describes its shape, location or job. Some skeletal muscles are:
Frontalis
(forehead)
A muscle's name usually describes its shape, location or job. Some skeletal muscles are:

Deltoid
(moves shoulder and upper arm)
A muscle's name usually describes its shape, location or job. Some skeletal muscles are:

Biceps
(bends arm)
A muscle's name usually describes its shape, location or job. Some skeletal muscles are:

Rectus abdominis
(stomach)
A muscle's name usually describes its shape, location or job. Some skeletal muscles are:

Sartorius
(bends and turns leg)
What is the function of skeleton muscles?
Skeletal muscles move and support the skeleton.

A skeletal muscle links two bones across its connecting joint.
What percentage of body weight do muscles make up?
50 percent
How many individually named skeletal muscles are there?
640
What are the muscles nearest to the skin called?
Superficial muscles.
What are the muscles closest to the inside of the body called?
Deep muscles
Where are smooth muscles found?
In the hollow parts of the body.
Give examples of "hollow places" in the body.
Stomach
Intestines
Blood vessels
Bladder
What cause that smooth muscles contract in all directions?
Smooth muscles are arranged in layers with the fibers in each layer running in a different direction
A smooth muscle is an involuntary muscle. What does it mean?
This means that you cannot consciously control this muscle.

These muscles are under the control of autonomic nervous system.
What are your strongest muscles?
Your strongest muscles are the masseters on each side of your mouth.

They allow you to bite into things with a force of 73kg (160lb).
What is the strongest muscles in your body called?
Masseters
Describe the cardiac muscle cells?
Cardiac muscles cells are striped, like skeletal muscle cells.
What is the function of the cardiac muscles?
Cardiac muscles contract automatically to squeeze the walls of the heart inward
Your heart beats nonstop each day. How many times? Why is this possible?
The heart beats nonstop about 100,000 times each day.

It can do this because of the cardiac muscles.
What is most of your heart made up of?
Most of your heart is made of cardiac muscle.

The cardiac muscle never gets tired and never stops working until you die.
Give an example of a pair of muscles working together?
A good example of a pair of muscles working together can be seen in the human arm.
What is the muscle at the front of the arm called?
Biceps muscle
What is the muscle at the back of the arm called?
Triceps muscle.
When the biceps muscle is working (contracted) the triceps muscle is relaxed. When the triceps muscle is contracted the biceps muscle is relaxed.
What is this called and why?
Antagonistic action of muscles because they are always working in opposite ways.
What happens when bicep muscles contract?
Contraction of the biceps muscle bends the arm.
What happens when triceps muscles contracts?
Contraction of the triceps muscles straightens the arm.
Where are the antagonistic muscles in the legs?
There are muscles in the legs which work the same way to bend the knees, ankles and toes.
What is the only way for muscles to exert a force and do work?
By contracting
Give an example of how an antagonistic pair of muscles are used.
Bending and straightening the arm
To bend the arm requires one set of muscles to contract and one to relax the muscle? Name the 2 muscles.
To bend the arm requires one set of muscles – the biceps –

To contract, while another set – the triceps – relaxes.
How can the individual components of antagonistic pairs be classified?
Into extensors (muscles that straighten a limb) and

flexors (muscles that bend a limb).
What are extensors?
Muscles that straigthten a limb
What are flexors?
Muscles that bend a limb
What are muscles that straighten a limb called?
Extensors
What are muscles that bend a limb called?
Flexors
What is a striped muscle also called? Why?
Voluntary muscle or a skeletal muscle

It is sometimes called striped muscle because this is what it looks like through a microscope.

It is also called voluntary muscle because this is the muscle which you have direct control over when you want to make a movement

You may also be told that it is called Skeletal muscle, this is because it is attached to the skeleton.
Where will you find striped muscles?
On your legs arms etc., you have direct control over these muscles and can make almost any movements which you want to.

These muscles are also found in your face and jaws.
When would you use your striped muscles?
When you smile or frown and when you talk, eat or drink.
Striped muscles are always found in pairs of ...
Antagonistic muscles
What is another name for a smooth muscle?
Involuntary muscle
Why is it called a smooth muscle?
Because you cannot see any stripes when you look at it through the microscope;
Why is a smooth muscle also called involuntary muscle?
Because you cannot make it contract and relax through conscious control.
How do smooth muscles contract and relax?
Automatically
Where will you find the smooth muscle?
Intestines
Iris of your eye.
If you bite into a sour apple, you feel a pain at the back of your jaw just underneath your ear. Explain what happens.
Sometimes the muscles squeeze the salivary gland so strongly that it hurts.

When you take a mouthful of food, smooth muscles in your salivary gland squeeze the gland so that saliva squirts into your mouth.
How do the muscles in your intestines work? Explain
In pairs.

When the circular muscles contract they make the intestines longer (and thinner) and when the longitudinal muscles contract they make the intestines shorter (and fatter).
What is the function of the smooth muscles in your intestines?
These muscles move food along the guts (peristalsis) and help to mix food with your digestive juices.
What is the muscle of your heart called?
Cardiac muscle
Describe the muscle of your heart.
The muscle of your heart is also striped but it is involuntary.

It is called cardiac muscle:
What does cardiac mean?
"of the heart".
What does cardiac input mean?
How fast the blood is pumped around your body
When you take exercise your heart beats faster and with a bigger volume.

This increase in cardiac output (how fast the blood is pumped around your body) produces a hormone, what is it called?
Adrenaline
Which nerve can make the heart go slower?
Vagus nerve
When does this happen?
When you are sitting or lying down.
Do muscles work alone?
No, they work in pairs
Whether they are striped muscle, smooth muscle or cardiac muscle makes no difference, all muscles must work in pairs. Why?
This is because they can contract and relax but cannot push or stretch themselves
What is another name for the cardiac / heart muscle?
Myocardium (my-uh-kar-dee-um).
What is the function of the heart muscle?
The thick muscles of the heart contract to pump blood out and then relax to let blood back in after it has circulated through the body.
What are the special group of cells within the heart known as? Why?
As the pacemaker of the heart, because it controls the heartbeat.
Give another name for skeletal muscles? Why is it called this?
Striated (stry-ay-tud) muscle

Because the light and dark parts of the muscle fibers make them look striped (striated is a fancy word meaning striped).
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, true or false.
True
What does it mean when you say that skeletal muscles are voluntary?
It means you can control what they do.
What is the combination of your muscles and your skeleton or bones called?
Musculoskeletal system
(mus-kyuh-low-skel-uh-tul)
How are skeletal muscles held to the bones?
With the help of tendons
What are tendons?
Tendons are cords made of tough tissue.
What is the function of tendons?
Tendons work as special connector pieces between bone and muscle.

The tendons are attached so well that when you contract one of your muscles, the tendon and bone move along with it.
Skeletal muscles come in many different sizes and shapes to allow them to do many types of jobs. Explain and give examples.
Some of your biggest and most powerful muscles are in your back, near your spine. These muscles help keep you upright and standing tall.

They also give your body the power it needs to lift and push things.

Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, These muscles also hold your head high.
Where can your deltoid muscle be found?
In each of your shoulders
What is the function the deltoid muscle?
It helps you move your shoulders every which way — from swinging a softball bat to shrugging your shoulders when you're not sure of an answer.
Where can your pectoralis muscle (pectorals) be found?
On each side of your upper chest.
What can be found below your pectorals, down under your ribcage?
Rectus abdominus muscles ( rek-tus ab-dahm-uh-nus), or

abdominals (say: ab-dahm-uh-nulz).

They're often called abs for short.
When will you see your biceps?
When you make a muscle in your arm, you tense your biceps muscle.

When you contract your biceps muscle, you can actually see it push up under your skin.
Where will you find your quadriceps/quads?
Muscles on the front of your thighs.
What is the muscle called that is situated under the skin and fat in your behing?
Gluteus maximus
What is the function of antagonistic pairs of muscles?
They create movement when one (the prime mover) contracts and the other (the antagonist) relaxes.
Give examples of antagonistic pairs of muscles?
Quadriceps and hamstrings in the leg

Biceps and triceps in the arm
Substance that helps in the breakdown of food for the digestive process
Acids
Tiny, thin-walled sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Alveoila
Large muscle in the front of the upper arm that flexes the forearm
Biceps
A fluid that is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; used in the digestion and absorption of fat
Bile
Give examples of antagonistic pairs of muscles?
Quadriceps and hamstrings in the leg

Biceps and triceps in the arm
Substance that helps in the breakdown of food for the digestive process
Acids
Tiny, thin-walled sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Alveoila
Large muscle in the front of the upper arm that flexes the forearm
Biceps
A fluid that is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; used in the digestion and absorption of fat
Bile
Stretchy bag with muscular wall that collects and stores urine
Bladder
Soft jellylike substance in the center of a bone that produces blood cells for the body
Bone marrow
Main branch of the trachea (windpipe) that leads directly to the lungs
Bronchi
Tough, elastic tissue that is found in various parts of the body, such as the joints, outer ear, and nose
Cartilage
Tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins; where the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen take place
Capillaries
Gas formed formed during respiration; given off from the lungs
Carbon dioxide
of or pertaining to the heart
Cardiac
of or pertaining to the wrist
Carpal
the process where the water vapor from your breath meets cold and turns into tiny droplets of liquid which looks like white puff of steam
Condense
transparent outer coat of the eyeball
Corneas
Process by which food is changed into substances that can be absorbed and used by the body
Digestion
Muscle that separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities;helps in breathing
Diaphragm
Chemical that helps to break down and digest food
Enzyme
Muscular tube for the passage of food from the mouth to the stomach
Esophagus
The breathing out and discharge of stale air, also allowing you the ability to talk
Exhale
Relating to the liver
Hepatic
Long bone of the arm, extending from the shoulder to the elbow
Humerus
Filling the lungs with fresh,oxygen-rich air
Inhale
Organ used to maintain water and electrolyte balance along with filtering the blood of waste products
Kidney
Metric unit of volume equal to approximately 1.056 liquid quarts
Liter
Part of the respiratory tract in the throat area that contains the vocal cords
Larynx
Spongy, sack like respiratory organs in the chest cavity that together with the heart work to remove carbon dioxide from the blood and provide it with oxygen
Lungs
Lower bone in the jaw
Mandible
Middle part of the human foot that includes the five bones between the toes and the ankle
Metatarsus
Thin, pliable layer of tissue that covers surfaces or seperates or connects other body parts
Membrane
Part of hand that includes the five bones between the fingers and the wrist
Metacarpus
The air passage behind the nose from which moisture is added to the air you breathe during the breathing process
Nasal cavity
Filtering units of the kidney that remove waste matter from the blood
Nephrons
A part of an organism that performs a specific function.
Organ
An element essential for plant and animal respiration; essential to life
Oxygen
Long, irregularly shaped gland that produces enzymes and hormones that aid in digestion
Pancreas
Clear, alkaline secretion of the pancreas containing enzymes that aid in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats
Pancreatic juice
Wavelike muscular contractions that help to move food down the digestive system
Peristalsis
Section that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx
Pharynx
Bone between the finger and toe joints
Phalange
A series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about a result
Process
The shorter of the two lower arm bones on the inside of the arm
Radius
Process by which the body's cells use oxygen in order to break down nutrients and supply the body with energy
Respiration
Enclosing structure formed by the ribs and the bones to which they are attached, that forms a cage to protect the heart and lungs
Rib cage
One of a series of long, curved bones that form a bony cage to protect the heart and lungs
Ribs
Watery mixture of secretions from the salivary glands that lubricates the mouth and starts to digest food
Saliva
Naturally abundant nutrient found chiefly in seeds, fruits, roots, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice
Starch
One of the seven bones in the ankle
Tarsal
Band of tough fibrous tissue that connects a muscle to a bone
thoracic
Tendons
Tube that joins the bronchi to the lungs
Trachea
Bone extending from the elbow to the wrist on the side opposite to the thumb
Ulna
Long, narrow duct that takes urine from the kidney to the bladder
Ureter
Any of the bones forming the spinal column
Vertebrae
Tiny projections in the intestines from which digested food is absorbed into the blood
Villi