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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Excitability
Especially notable response to stimuli
Contractility
Shortens
Extensibility
Can stretch
Elasticity
Returns to original shape
Motion
total body movement
walking
running
localized movement (grasping pencil or nodding head)
relys on bones, joints, and muscles
Heat Production
muscle tissue produces heat; heat released by muscle is to maintain body temp.; involuntary muscle contraction of the skeletal increases body temp.
Maintain posture
postural muscles contract continuously when a person stabilized joints and maintain body position
Skeletal, straited, or voluntary
moves bones of skeleton; alternating can be continuously controlled
Cardiac or heart
found in heart
form wall of heart
straited
involuntary
Smooth, non-straited, or involuntary or viseral
associated with visceral organs
Fascia
Flat or membranous sheet of conn. tissue
Superficial fascia
Also called "hypodermis" or "subcutaneus" tissue
separates muscle from skin
Deep fascia
associated with muscles
binds and separates muscles, strengthens them, and allows for movement
gives rise to epimysium, perimysium, tendons, aponeuroses and tendon sheaths associated with skeletal muscles
Epimysium
Around entire muscle organ
Fasciculi(fasciles)
A group or bundle of muscle fibers
Perimysium
Surrounds or defines a fascicle
Endomysium
Around each muscle cell
outermost layer
Sarcolemma
Cell membrane of muscle cell
Muscle cell, muscle fiber or myofiber
muscle cell
Tendon
connects muscle to bone
Aponeurosis
A broad flat tendon
Tendon (synovial) sheath
Sim. to bursae
certain tendons, esp. those of the wrist and ankle, are enclosed in tubes of fibrous conn. tissue
Visceral layer
inner layer of tendon sheath is attached to surface of tendon
Parietal layer
outermost layer of tendon sheath, and is attached to the bone
Tendon (synovial) sheath
Visceral layer
Parietal layer
Typical
one artery and one or two veins with a nerve; each muscle cell in close contact with one or more capillaries
each muscle fiber innervated by a nerve process
Muscle cell (fiber) or myofiber
muscle fiber
Sarcolemma
plasma membrane of the muscle fiber
Sarcoplasm
cytoplasm of the muscle fiber
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Series of membrane enclosed channels; comparable to E.R.
T-tubule (transverse tubule)
At right angles to long axis of cell
opens to outside of sarcolemma - contains extracellular fluid
Triad
consists of T-tubule and adjacent terminal cisternae
Myofibrils
consists of 3 types of myofilaments; thin myofilaments; thick myofilaments; strutural proteins
Thin myofilaments
Actin
Tropomyosin
Troponin
Tropomyosin-Troponin complex
Actin
Contractile
have myosin binding sites
bean or pea shaped
twisted together into a helix
Tropomyosin
cover myosin binding sites on actin in a relaxed muscle fiber
Troponin
Holds tropomyosin strands together
Tropomyosin-Troponin complex
means that they are hooked together chemically
Myosin
Looks like two golf clubs twisted together
a "motor protein" - uses ATP to push or pull molecules
Thick myofilaments
Myosin
Cross bridges (myosin heads)
Cross bridges (myosin heads)
the golf clubs heads
have actin binding sites
Structural proteins
Titin
Structural proteins
Not as abundant as contractile proteins (actin or myosin) for alignment, stability, elasticity, extensibility etc. of myofibrils
Titin (connectin)
One example is titan = gigantic = anchors thick filaments to the Z line (disc); helps in recoil after contraction
Sarcomere
stack or unit of myofilaments
from z line to z line
Z line
Define sarcomere
pass through I band
narrow
plate shaped
A (anisotropic) band
Thick and thin myofilaments that overlap eachother
I (isotropic) band
Thin myofilaments only
H zone
Thick myofilaments only
M line
Middle of H zone
The sliding filament mechanism
muscle contraction
move inwards
What happens to thin myofilaments during muscle contraction?
Shorten
What happens to sarcomeres during muscle contraction?
stay the same
What happens to the length of thick and thin myofilaments during muscle contraction?
Shortens to gone
What happens to the width of the H zone during muscle contraction?
Make on/off contact with actin
What happens to cross bridges (myosin heads) during muscle contraction?
Motor unit
Nerve
Motor Neuron
Axon
Axon terminals
Synaptic end bulbs
Synaptic vescicles
Synapse
Nerve
nerve muscle
helps supply motor units
bundle axons traveling together
Motor neuron
Neurons that stimulate skeletal muscle fibers to contract
Axon
threadlike extension from brain or spinal cord to a group of skeletal muscle fibers
Axon terminals (telodendria)
Dendrites
synaptic end bulbs
Synaptic end bulbs (plates, feet, and knobs)
the motor neuron axon terminal divides into a cluster
Synaptic vesiscles
store and release neurotransmitters
sac like structure
released into synapse
Synapse
space btwn bulbs and sarcolemma
Red muscle fibers
More myoglobin
More mitochondria
Greater vascular supply
Small fiber diameter
White muscle fibers
less myoglobin
less mitochondria
lesser vascular supply
larger fiber diameter