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483 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the innervation of the anterior deltoid?
axillary nerve
What is the cord of the axillary nerve?
posterior
What is the cervical level of the axillary nerve?
C5 C6
What are the 2 functions of the anterior deltoid?
shoulder flexion and internal rotation
What is the innervation of the pectoralis major, clavicular portion?
medial and lateral pectoral nerves
What is the cord of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves?
None
What are the 5 root levels of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves?
C5 C6 C7 C8 T1
What is the function of the pectoralis major, clavicular portion?
shoulder flexion
What is the innervation of the biceps?
musculotaneous nerve
What is the cord of the musculotaneous nerve?
lateral cord
What are the 2 root levels of the biceps?
C5 C6
What are the 3 functions of the biceps?
shoulder flexion, elbow flexion, and forearm supination
What is the innervation of the coracobrachialis?
musculotaneous nerve
What is the cord of the musculotaneous nerve?
lateral cord
What are the 2 root levels of the musculotaneous nerve?
C5 C6
What are the 2 functions of the coracobrachialis?
shoulder flexion and adduction
What is the innervation of the posterior deltoid?
axillary nerve
What is the cord of the axillary nerve?
posterior
What are the two root levels of the axillary nerve?
C5 C6
What is the function of the posterior deltoid?
shoulder extension
What is the innervation of the lats?
thoracodorsal nerve
What is the cord of the thoracodoral nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 3 root levels of the thoracodorsal nerve?
C6 C7 C8
What are the 3 functions of the lats?
shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation
What is the innervation of the teres major?
lower subscapular nerve
What is the cord of the lower subscapular nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 2 root levels of the lower subscapular nerve?
C5 C6
What are the 3 functions of the teres major?
shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation
What is the innervation of the triceps long head?
radial nerve
What is the cord of the radial nerve?
posterior
What are the 3 root levels of radial nerve?
C6 C7 C8
What is the function of the triceps long head?
shoulder extension
What is the innervation of the pectoralis major, sternocostal portion?
medial and lateral pectoral nerves
What is the cord of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves?
none
What are the 5 root levels the medial and lateral pectoral nerves?
C5 C6 C7C8 T1
What is the function of the pectoralis major, sternocostal portion?
shoulder extension
What is the innervation of the middle deltoid?
axillary nerve
What is the cord of the axillary nerve?
posterior
What are the 2 root levels of the axillary nerve?
C5 C6
What is the function of the middle deltoid?
shoulder abduction
What is the innervation of the supraspinatus?
suprascapular nerve
What is the trunk of the suprascapular nerve?
upper trunk
What is the root level of the suprascapular nerve?
C5 C6
What are the 2 functions of the suprapinatus?
shoulder abduction and external rotation
What is the innervation of the pectoralis major?
medial and lateral pectoral nerves
What is the cord/trunk of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves?
none
What are the 5 root levels of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves?
C5 C6 C7 C8 T1
What are the 2 functions of pectoralis major?
shoulder adduction and internal rotation
What is the innervation of the lats?
thoracodorsal nerve
What is the cord of the thoracodorsal nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 3 root levels of the thoracodorsal nerve?
C6 C7 C8
What are the 3 functions of the lats?
Shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation
What is the innervation of the teres major?
lower subscapular nerve
What is the cord of the lower subscapular nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 2 root levels of the lower subscapular nerve?
C5 C6
What are the 3 functions of the teres major?
shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation
What are the two functions of the coracobrachialis?
shoulder flexion and adduction
What is the innervation of the infraspinatus?
suprascapular nerve
What is the trunk of the suprascapular nerve?
upper trunk
What are the 2 root levels of the suprascapular nerve?
C5 C6
What are the two functions of the infraspinatus?
shoulder adduction and external rotation
What are the two functions of the triceps long head?
Shoulder extension and adduction
What is the innervation of the anterior and posterior deltoid?
axillary nerve
What is the function of the combination of the anterior and posterior deltoid?
shoulder adduction
What is the innervation of the subscapularis?
upper and lower subscapular nerves
What is the cord of the upper and low subscapular nerves?
posterior
What are the 2 roots levels of the upper and low subscapular nerves?
C5 C6
What is the function of the subscapularis?
shoulder internal rotation
What is the innervation of the teres minor?
axillary nerve
What is the function of the teres minor?
shoulder external rotation
What is the innervation for the brachialis?
musculotaneous nerve
What is the cord for the musculotaneous nerve?
lateral cord
What are the 3 root levels for the musculotaneous nerve?
C5 C6 C7
What is the function of the brachialis?
elbow flexion
What is the innervation of the brachioradialis?
radial nerve
What is the cord of the radial nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 3 root levels of the radial nerve?
C5 C6 C7
What is the function of the brachioradialis?
elbow flexion
What is the innervation of the pronator teres?
median nerve
What is the cord of the median nerve?
lateral cord
What are the 2 root levels of the median nerve?
C6 C7
What are the 2 functions of the pronator teres?
elbow flexion and forearm pronation
What is the innervation of the triceps?
radial nerve
What is the innervation of the triceps?
radial nerve
What is the cord of the radial nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 3 root levels of the radial nerve?
C6 C7 C8
What is the function of the triceps?
elbow extension
What is the innervation of the anconeus?
radial nerve
What is the function of the anconeus?
elbow extension
What is the innervation of the supinator?
posterior interosseus nerve
The posterior interosseus nerve is a branch of what nerve?
radial nerve
What is the cord of the interosseus nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 2 root levels of the posterior interosseus nerve?
C5 C6
What is the function of the supinator?
forearm supination
What is the innervation of the pronator quadratus?
anterior interosseus nerve
Of what nerve is the anterior interosseus a branch?
median nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the anterior interosseus nerve?
C7 C8 T1
What is the function of the pronator quadratus?
forearm pronation
What is the innervation of the flexor carpi radialis?
median nerve
What is the function of the flexor carpi radialis?
forearm pronation
What is the origin of the flexor carpi radialis
medial epicondyle
What is the origin of the flexor digitorum profundus?
medial epicondyle
What is the origin of the flexor digitorum superficialis?
medial epicondyle
What is the origin of the palmaris longus?
medial epicondyle
What is the origin of the pronator teres?
medial epicondyle
Wha is the origin of the flexor carpi ulnaris?
medial epicondyle
What is the origin of the extensor carpi radialis longus?
lateral epicondyle
What is the origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis?
lateral epicondyle
What is the origin of the extensor carpi ulnaris?
lateral epicondyle
What is the origin of the extensor digitorum superficialis?
lateral epicondyle
What is the origin of the supinator?
lateral epicondyle
What is the origin of the anconeus?
lateral epicondyle
What is the innervation of the flexor carpi radialis?
meidan nerve
What are the 2 cords of the median nerve?
median and lateral cords
What are the 2 root levels of the median nerve, as it innervates the flexor carpi radialis?
C6 C7
What are the 2 functions of the flexor carpi radialis?
wrist flexion
radial deviation of the wrist -abduction
What is the innervation of the flexor carpi ulanaris?
ulnar nerve
What is the cord of the ulnar nerve?
medial cord
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve?
C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor carpi ulnaris?
wrist flexion
What is the innervation of the palmaris longus?
median nerve
What are the 2 cords of the medial nerve, as it innervates the palmaris longus?
C7 C8
What is the function of the palmaris longus?
wrist flexion
What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum superficialis?
median nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the median as it innervates the flexor digitorum superficialis?
C7 C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor digitorum superficialis?
wrist flexion
What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum profundus to second and third digits?
median nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the median nerve as it innervates the 2nd and 3rd digits?
C7 C8 T1
What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum profundus to the 4th and 5th digits?
ulnar nerve
What is the cord of the ulnar nerve to the flexor digitorum profundus to 4th and 5th digits?
medial cord
What are the 3 roots levels of the ulnar nerve to the flexor digitorum profundus to the 4th and 5th digits?
C7 C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor digitorum profundus?
wrist flexion
What is the innervation of the flexor pollicis longus?
median nerve
What are two root levels of the median nerve to the flexor pollicis longus?
C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor pollicis longus?
wrist flexion
What is the innervation of the extensor carpi radialis longus?
radial nerve
What is the cord of the radial nerve?
posterior cord
What are the 2 root levels of the radial nerve for the extensor carpi radialis longus?
C6 C7
What are the 2 functions of the extensor carpi radialis longus?
wrist extension and radial deviation of the wrist - abduction
What is the the innervation of extensor carpi radialis brevis?
radial nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the radial nerve for the extensor carpi radialis brevis?
C6 C7
What is the function of the extensor carpi radialis brevis?
wrist extension
What is the innervation of the extensor carpi ulnaris?
radial nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the radial nerve for the extensor carpi ulnaris?
C7 C8
What is the function of the extensor carpi ulnaris?
wrist extension
What is the innervation of the extensor digitorum communis ?
radial nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the radial nerve for the extensor digitorum communis?
C7 C8
What is the function of the extensor digitorum communis?
wrist extension
What is the innervation of the extensor digiti minimi?
ulnar nerve
What is the cord of the ulnar nerve?
medial
What are the two root levels of the ulnar nerve for the extensor digiti minimi?
C8 T1
What is the function of the extensor digiti minimi?
wrist extension
What is the innervation of the extensor indicis?
radial nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the radial nerve for the extensor indicis?
C6 C7 C8
What is the function of the extensor indicis?
wrist extension
What is the innervation of the extensor pollicis longus?
radial nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the radial nerve for the extensor pollicus longus?
C6 C7 C8
What is the function of the extensor pollicus longus?
wrist extension
What is the innervation of the flexor carpi ulnaris?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve for the flexor carpi ulnaris?
C8 T1
What are the 2 functions of the flexor carpi ulnaris?
ulnar deviation of the wrist - adduction
wrist flexion
What is the innervation of the extensor carpi ulnaris?
radial nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the radial nerve for the extensor carpi ulnaris?
C7 C8
What are the 2 function of the extensor carpi ulnaris?
ulnar deviation of the wrist - adduction
wrist extension
What is the innervation of the flexor carpi radialis
median nerve
What are the 2 functions of the flexor carpi radialis?
radial deviation of the wrist - abduction
wrist flexion
What are the 2 cords of the median nerve for the flexor carpi radialis?
medial and lateral cords
What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum profundus digits 2 and 3?
anterior interosseus nerve
The anterior interosseus nerve is a branch of what nerve?
median
What is the root level of the anterior interosseus nerve serving the flexor digitorum profundus digits 2 and 3?
C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor digitorum profundus digits 2 and 3?
finger flexor
What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum profundus digits 4 and 5?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the flexor digitiorum profundus digits 4 and 5?
C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor digitorum profundus?
finger flexor
What are the two innervations of the flexor digitorum profundus?
*digits 2 and 3: anterior interosseus nerve -median
*digits 4 and 5:ulnar nerve
What is the innervation of the flexor digitorum superficialis?
median nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the median nerve serving the flexor digitorum superficialis?
C7 C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor digitorum superficialis?
finger flexion
What is the innervation of the 1st and 2nd lumbricals?
median nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the median nerve serving the 1st and 2nd lumbricals?
C8 T1
What is the innervation of the 3rd and 4th lumbricals?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar serving the 3rd and 4th lumbricals?
C8 T1
What is the function of the lumbricals?
finger flexion
What is the innervation of the dorasl and palmar interossei?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the dorsal and palmar interossei?
C8 T1
What is the function of the dorsal and palmar interrossei?
finger flexion
What is the innervation of the flexor digiti minimi?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the flexor digiti minimi?
C8 T1
What is the function of the the flexor digiti minimi?
finger flexion
What is the innervation of the extensor digitorum communis?
posterior interosseus nerve
From what nerve does the posterior interosseus nerve arise?
radial nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the posterior interosseus nerve (radial) serving the extensor digitorum communis?
C7 C8
What is the function of the extensor digitorum communis?
finger extension
What is the innervation of the extensor indicis proprius?
posterior interosseus nerve
What is the function of the extensor indicis proprius?
finger extension
What are the 2 root levels of the posterior interosseus nerve (radial) serving the extensor indicis proprius?
C7 C8
What is the innervation of the extensor digiti minimi?
posterior interosseus nerve
What is the function of the extensor digiti minimi?
finger extension
What are the 2 functions of the dorsal interossei?
finger flexion
finger abduction
What is the innervation of the abductor digiti minimi?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the abductor digiti minimi?
C8 T1
What is the function of the abductor digiti minimi?
finger abduction
What are the 2 functions of the palmar interossei?
finger flexion
finger adduction
What is the innervation of the palmar interossei?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the palmar interossei?
C8 T1
What is the innervation of the flexor pollicis brevis superficial head?
median nerve
What is the innervation of the flexor pollicis brevis deep head?
ulnar nerve
What are the two root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the flexor pollicis brevis deep head?
C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor pollicis brevis?
thumb flexion
What is the innervation of the flexor pollicis longus?
anterior interosseus nerve
From what nerve does the anterior interosseus nerve branch?
median nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the anterior interosseus nerve (median) serving the flexor pollicus longus?
C8 T1
What is the function of the flexor pollicus longus?
thumb flexion
What is the innervation of the opponens pollicis?
median nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the median nerve serving the opponens pollicis?
C8 T1
What are the 2 functions of the opponens pollicis?
thumb flexion
opposition of the thumb to the 5th digit
What is the innervation of the adductor pollicis?
ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the adductor pollicis?
C8 T1
What are the 2 functions of the adductor pollicis?
thumb flexion
thumb adduction
What is the innervation of the extensor pollicis longus?
posterior interosseus nerve
What the origin nerve of the posterior interosseus nerve?
radial nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the posterior interosseus nerve (radial) serving the extensor pollicis longus?
C7 C8
What is the function of the extensor pollicis longus?
thumb extension
What is the innervation of the extensor pollicis brevis?
posterior interosseus nerve (radial)
What is the functions of the extensor pollicis brevis?
thumb extension
What is the innervation of the abductor pollicis longus?
posterior interosseus nerve
What are the 2 functions of the abductor pollicis longus?
thumb extension
thumb abduction
What is the innervation of the abductor pollicis brevis?
median nerve
What are the 2 functions of the adductor pollicis brevis?
thumb abduction
opposition of the thumb to 5th digit
What is the innervation of the flexor pollicis brevis superficial head?
median nerve
What are the two root levels of the median nerve serving the flexor pollicis brevis superficial head?
C8 T1
What are the two functions of the flexor pollicis brevis superficial head/
thumb flexion
opposition of the thumb to the 5th digit
What is the innervation of the opponens digiti minimi?
Ulnar nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the ulnar nerve serving the opponens digiti minimi?
C8 T1
What is the function of the opponens digiti minimi?
opposition of the thumb to the 5th digit
What is the innervation of the iliopsoas?
femoral nerve
What is the prime flexor of the hip?
iliopsoas
What are the root levels of the femoral nerve serving the iliopsoas?
L1 L2 L3
What is the function of the iliopsoas?
hip flexion
What is the innervation of the sartorius?
femoral nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the femoral nerve serving the sartorius?
L2 L3 L4
What is the 5 functions of the sartorius?
hip flexion
hip abduction
internal rotator of the hip
knee flexion
knee medial rotator
What is the innervation of the rectus femoris?
femoral nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the femoral nerve serving the rectus femoris?
L2 L3 L4
What is the function of the rectus femoris?
hip flexion
What is the innervation of the pectineus?
femoral nerve
What is the 2 functions of the pectineus?
hip flexion
hip adduction
What are the 3 root levels of the femoral nerve serving the pectineus?
L2 L3 L4
What is the innervation of the tensor fasiae latae?
superior gluteal nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the superior gluteal nerve serving the tensor fasiae latae?
L4 L5 S1
What are the 3 functions of the tensor fasciae latae?
hip flexion
hip abduction
internal rotator
What is the innervation of the adductor brevis?
obturator nerve
What are the 3 root levels of obturator nerve serving the adductor brevis?
L2 L3 L4
What are the 3 functions of the adductor brevis?
hip flexion
hip adduction
internal rotator of the hip
What is the innervation of the adductor longus?
obturator nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the obturator nerve serving the adductor longus?
L2 L3 L4
What are the 3 functions of the adductor longus?
hip flexion
hip adduction
internal rotation
What is the 2 innervations of the adductor magnus?
obturator and sciatic
What are the 5 root levels of the obturator and sciatic nerves serving the adductor magnus?
L2 L3 L4 L5 S1
What are the 4 functions of the adductor magnus?
hip flexion
hip adduction
hip extension
internal rotation
What is the innervation of the gracilis muscle?
obturator nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the obturator nerve serving the gracilis?
L2 L3 L4
What are the 6 functions of the gracilis?
hip flexion
hip adduction-anteriorly placed
hip adduction-posteriorly placed
internal rotation
knee flexion
knee medial rotation
What is the innervation of the gluteus maximus?
inferior gluteal nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the inferior gluteal nerve serving the gluteus maximus?
L5 S1 S2
What are the 3 functions of the gluteus maximus?
hip adduction - posterior
hip extension
external rotation
What is the prime extensor of the hip?
gluteus maximus
What is the innervation of the obturator externus?
obturator nerve
What are the 2 root levels of the obturator nerve serving the obturator externus?
L3 L4
What are the 2 functions of the obturator externus?
hip adduction - posterior
external rotation
What is the innervation of the long head of the biceps femoris?
sciatic nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the sciatic nerve serving the long head of the biceps femoris?
L5 S1 S2
What are the 4 functions of the long head of the biceps femoris?
hip adduction -posterior
hip extension
knee flexion
knee lateral rotation
What is the innervation of the semitendinosus?
sciatic nerve (tibial)
What are the 4 root levels of the sciatic nerve serving the semitendinosus?
L4 L5 S1 S2
What are the 5 functions of the semitendinosus?
hip adduction - posterior
hip extension
internal rotation
knee flexion
knee medial rotation
What is the innervation of the semimembranosus?
sciatic nerve (tibial)
What are the 3 root levels of the sciatic nerve serving the semimembranosus?
L5 S1 S2
What are the 5 functions of the semimembranosus?
hip adduction - posterior
hip extension
internal rotation
knee flexion
knee medial rotation
What is the innervation of the gluteus medius?
superior gluteal nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the superior gluteal nerve serving the gluteus medius?
L4 L5 S1
What are the 3 functions of the gluteus medius?
hip abduction
hip extension
internal rotation
What is the innervation of the gluteus minimus?
superior gluteal nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the superior gluteal nerve serving the gluteus minimus?
L4 L5 S1
What are the 3 functions of the gluteus minimus?
hip abduction
hip extension
internal rotation
What is the innervation of the piriformis?
nerve to piriformis
What are the 3 root levels of the nerve to the piriformis?
L5 S1 S2
What is the function of the piriformis?
abduction
internal rotation
external rotation
What is the innervation of the gluteus maximus?
inferior gluteal nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the inferior gluteal nerve serving the gluteus maximus?
L5 S1 S2
What are the 3 functions of the gluteus maximus?
abduction
internal rotaton
external rotation
hip extension
What is the prime mover hip extensor?
gluteus maximus
What fibers, posterior or superior, of the gluteus medius and minimus are hip extensors?
posterior fibers
What are the 3 hamstring muscles?
long head of the biceps femoris
semimembranosus
semitendinosus
What is the innervation of the obturator internus?
nerve to the obturator internus
What are the 2 root levels of the nerve to the obturator internus?
L5 S1
What is the function of the obturator internus?
external rotation
What is the innervation of the superior gemellus?
nerve to the superior gemellus
What are the 3 root levels of the nerve to the superior gemellus?
L5 S1 S2
What is the function of the superior gemellus?
external rotation
What is the innervation of the inferior gemellus?
nerve to the inferior gemellus
What are the 3 root levels of the nerve to the inferior gemellus?
L5 S1 S2
What is the function of the inferior gemellus?
external rotation
What are the 2 functions of the obturator externus?
external rotation
hip adduction
What is the innervation of the quadratus femoris?
nerve to the quadratus femoris
What are the 3 root levels of the nerve to the quadratus femoris?
L4 L5 S1
What are the 2 functions of the quadratus femoris?
external rotation
adduction
What is the 5-year survival rate (%) for cancer?
66%
What is the most common rehab problem for a cancer patient?
weakness
What is the preferred study for silent aspiration?
video-fluoroscopic swallow study
A high index of suspicion should be maintained for what disorder in immobile cancer patients?
swallowing disorders
A high index of suspicion should be maintained in cancer patients for metastasis to what 2 structures?
extremities
spine
What are the 4 muscles that comprise the quadriceps?
rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus intermedius
vastus medialis obliquus
What is the innervation of the quadriceps?
femoral nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the femoral nerve that serves the quadriceps?
L2 L3 L4
What is the function of the quadriceps
knee extension
A 4 muscles comprising the quadriceps join with what tendon?
patellar tendon
What is the innervation of the short head of the biceps femoris?
sciatic nerve - common peroneal division
What are the 3 root levels of the sciatic nerve (common peroneal division) serving the short head of the biceps femoris?
L5 S1 S2
What is the function of the short head of the biceps femoris?
knee flexion
knee lateral rotation
What is the function of the quadriceps?
knee extension
What is the innervation of the gastrocnemius?
tibial nerve
What are the two root levels of the tibial nerve serving the gastrocnemius?
S1 S2
What is the function of the gastrocnemius?
knee flexion
What is the innervation of the popliteus?
tibial nerve
What are the 3 root levels of the tibial nerve serving the popliteus?
L4 L5 S1
What is the function of the popliteus?
unlocks the knee
What is a neurotoxicity neuropathy of oxaliplatinum?
distal sensory polyneuropathy
What temperature intolerance develops with oxilaplatinum?
cold interolerance
What is a neurotoxicity neuropathy of paclitaxel?
sensory/motor peripheral neuorpathy
Is the sensory/motor peripheral neuropathy of paclitaxel dose-dependent or dose-independent?
dose-dependent
What are 4 neuropathies or neurotoxicities of vincristine?
*peripheral sensory/motor polyneuropathy
*autonomic neuropathy
*cranial nerve palsy
*encephalopathy
Are the neurotoxicities of vincristine dose-dependent or dose-independent?
dose dependent
What is the neuortoxicity neuropathy of thalidomide?
sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy
What is the neurotoxicity of fluorouracil?
acute cerebellar dysfunction
What is the neurotoxicity of fludarabine?
leukoencephalopathy
What are 2 neurotoxicities of methotrexate?
acute encephalopathy
leukoencephalopathy
What are 2 neurotoxicity neuropathies of bortezomib?
*sensory peripheral polyneuropathy
*autonomic neuropathy
Are the neurotoxicities of bortezomib dose-dependent or dose-independent?
dose dependent
Are children or adults more at risk of chemo neurotoxicities? Why?
children - still developing myelin
What is the total incidence of chemo neurotoxicities?
34%
What two physical complications can occur with chemo useage?
fibrosis
contractures
With what two malignancies are paraneoplasitic polymyositis and dermatomyositis associated?
breast cancer
lung cancer
What two syndromes are associated with breast and lung cancer?
paraneoplastic polymyositis
dermatomyositis
What myopathy is associated with metastatic disease?
carcinomatous myopathy
What is a primary muscle finding in carcinomatous myopathy?
muscle necrosis
Weakness is carcinomatous myopathy is distal or proximal?
proximal weakness
What neuropathy is associated with lung cancer?
carcinomatous neuropathy
What type (type I or II) muscle atrophy occurs with carcinomatous neuropathy?
Type II
Is the muscle weakness in carcinomatous neuropathy distal or proximal?
proximal weakness
What neuropathy develops with carcinomatous neuropathy?
distal peripheral polyneuropathy
Are reflexes normal, hyper, or hypo in carcinomatous neuropathy?
hypo-reflexic
Steroid myopathy is proximal or distal, type I or type II?
proximal atrophy of type II muscle fibers
Lymphedema is frequent complication of what type of cancer?
breast cancer
What percentage of breast cancer patients develop lymphedema?
33%
What two treatments increase the risk of lymphedema?
lymph node dissection
radiation treatment of the axilla
Radiation treatment to what area increases the risk of lymphedema in breast cancer?
axilla
What is the cellular defect causing lymphedema?
accumulation of protein fluid in the interstitium
How can grade I lymphedema be reversed?
elevation
Is grade I lymphedema pitting or non-pitting?
pitting
Induration occurs with what grade lymphedema?
grade 2
Is grade 2 lymphedema pitting or non-pitting?
non pitting
Is grade 2 lymphedema responsive to elevation?
no
What grade is described as lymphostatic elephantiasis?
grade 3
What grade is elephantiasis?
grade 4
What direction is lymphedema massage?
retrograde
A lymphedema external compression garment is isometric or isotonic?
isometric
With compression therapy, which sized protein molecules remain sequestered in the interstitium, thus affecting the colloidal pressure?
large proteins
What type of compression pumps are effective in the reabsorbtion of fluid?
sequential graded pumps
What is a contraindication to compression pumps?
infection
What technique should precede compression pumps?
manual lymph drainage
What procedure is a contraindication to compression pumps?
bilateral mastectomy
What may happen if compression pumps are used on a patient with a bilateral mastectomy?
truncal edema
When there is more than one area of lymphedema, what may then become edematous?
other areas
What degree of ROM of shoulder abduction and flexion may be done immediately post mastectomy?
40 degrees shoulder abduction and flexion
What percentage of patients with metastatic bone disease have breast, lung, or prostate cancer?
75%
What percentage of patients wiht breast, lung, or prostate cancer will eventually develop bone metastasis?
50%
60% of all bone metastatis in males are secondary to what cancer?
prostate
What percentage of patients with advanced prostate cancer will devolop bone mets?
90%
What percentage range of bone metastasis in women are secondary to breast cancer?
50-85%
What is the route for skeletal metastasis?
blood
Bone is the what most common site for metastasis?
third most common
What are the 2 most consistent symptoms of bony mets?
night pain
pain with weight bearing
In patients with metastatic spine involvement, what is more painful, lying down or sitting?
lying down
In patients with bony mets, what percentage range suffer pathological fractures?
10-30%
Are skeletal mets solitary?
no
What are the 3 most likely skeletal sites for conncurent metastases?
spine
proximal femur
humerus
What part of the femur is most often a site of metastasis?
proximal femur
What precent of spinal metastasis occurs in the thoracic spine?
70%
70% of spinal metastasis occurs in what part of the spine?
thoracic
What percentage of spinal mets are extradural in origin?
95%
What structure in the spine is most likely the site of mets?
vertebral body
What percentage of patients with positive bone scans have no changes on plain xrays?
33%
Bone scans are highly specific, or sensitive, or both for tumors?
highly sensitive for tumors
What imaging study is more specific tumors than bone scans?
PET scans
More than 90% of bone metastasis in the upper extremity involves what bone?
humerus
The humerus is involved in what percentage of upper extremity bony metastasis?
90%
What 3 cancers are most likely to have upper extremity skeletal involvement?
breast cancer
multiple myeloma
renal cancer
What are the two most common sites of bony metastatis in the lower extremity?
proximal femur
hip
What 4 cancers are most likely to metastasize to the hip?
prostate
breast
lung
lymphoma
What 4 cancers are most likely to metastasize to the proximal femur?
breast
multiple myeloma
renal
prostate
Is it possible to have a positive xray and negative bone scan?
yes
According to Denis if the middle column is unstable is the spine stable?
No
What single column must be unstable for the spine to be considered unstable?
middle
Denis' model is applicable only to what parts of the spine?
lumbar and thoracic
The spine is considered unstable when the middle column is unstable or how many columns are unstable?
2
According to Denis what degree of angulation must be present for the spine to be considered unstable?
20%
According to Denis what are the 4 anterior column structures?
anterior longitudinal ligament
anterior half of vertebral body
anterior annulus
anterior disc
Lung cancer most likely metastasizes to the hip or femur?
hip
Lymphoma most likely metastasizes to the hip or femur?
hip
Renal cancer most commonly metastasizes to the hip or femur?
proximal femur
Multiple myeloma most commonly metastasizes to the hip or femur?
proximal femur
The anterior disc is part of what column?
anterior
The anterior annulus fibrosis is part of what column?
anterior
The anterior half of the vertebral body is part of what column?
anterior
The anterior longitudinal ligament is part of what column?
anterior
What 3 structures are part of the middle column?
posterior half of vertebral body
posterior annulus/posterior disc
posterior longitudinal ligament
The posterior half of the vertebral body is part of what column?
middle column
The posterior annulus/posterior disc are part of what column?
middle
The posterior longitudinal ligament is part of what column?
middle column
What 3 posterior ligaments are part of the posterior column?
ligamentum flavum
intraspinsous ligaments
supraspinous ligaments
What 5 structures comprise the posterior column?
spinous process
laminae
facets
pedicles
posterior ligaments
The spinous process is part of what column?
posterior
The laminae are part of what column?
posterior
The facets are part of what column?
posterior
The pedicles are part of what column?
posterior
What are the 3 general indications for surgical treatment of metastatic bone disease?
pain
impending pathological fracture
pathological fracture
What is the primary nonsurgical treatment of bone metastases?
immobilization
In the upper extremity what size (>cm) lesion in an indication for surgery?
>3cm
In the lower extremity what size (>cm) lesion is an indication for surgery?
>2.5cm
In the femoral neck what size (>cm) lesion is an indication for surgery?
>1.3cm
In the upper extremity what amount (>%) of involved cortex is an indication for surgery?
>50%
In the lower extremity what percentage range of involved cortex is an indication for surgery?
30-50%
What lesion is more prone to fracture, lytic or blastic?
lytic
Lytic lesions typically occur in what 4 tumors?
breast
lung
thyroid
kidney
Prostate cancers typically produce lytic or blastic lesions?
blastic
Breast cancer typically produce lytic or blastic lesions?
lytic
Lung cancer typically produces lytic or blastic lesions?
lytic
Thyroid cancer typically produces lytic or blastic lesions?
lytic
Kidney cancer typically produces lytic or blastic lesions?
lytic
What percentage of primary cancers are bone?
0.5%
What is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children?
osteosarcoma
What are the 2 most common sites of osteosarcoma in children and adolescents?
knee
proximal humerus
What is the 5-year survival rate of osteosarcoma?
80%
What is the typical surgical treatment of osteosarcoma?
amputation
What cancer represents 10-25% of patients with pathological fractures?
multiple myeloma
What percentage range of patients with pathological fractures have multiple myeloma?
10-25%
What is the age range of multiple myeloma?
50-70
Multiple myeloma cells resemble what cells?
plasma cells
What is the origin of multiple myeloma cells?
bone marrow
What are the 5 most common skeletal sites of multiple myeloma metastasis?
lumbar spine
pelvis
sacrum
chest
ribs
What is often the initial manifestation of multiple myeloma?
pathological fracture
What is the characteristic finding in a skeletal survey of multiple myeloma?
punched out lytic lesions with black sclerotic borders
Punched out lytic lesions with black sclerotic borders is characteristic of what cancer?
mutliple myeloma
What is the cause of a peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma?
amyloid deposits in peripheral nerves
What 2 studies may be normal in multiple myeloma?
xrays
bone scan
What is a complication of multiple myeloma?
renal failure due to tubular blockage by protein cast deposition
What does a bone densitometry show in a patient with multiple myeloma?:
osteoporosis
What class of meds is used to treat the bony complications of multiple myeloma?
biphosphonates
What is the usual 3 stage hematoglic course in multiple myeloma?
anemia
thrombocytopenia
hemorrhage
What type of exercises is recommended in the rehab of multiple myeloma patients? isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic?
isometric
What PT modalities are contraindicated in multiple myeloma?
ultrasound
diathermy
microwave
Are pain meds in cancer recommeded prn or scheduled?
scheduled
Breakthrough pain is treated with what?
rescue doses
What is the range of the VAS pain scale 1-10 or 0-10
0-10
When (minutes) do oral opioids take effect?
30 minutes
When (minutes) do IV opioids take effect?
5 minutes
What is a typical oral morphine dose?
15mg q4
What is a typical oxycodone dose?
10mg q4
What is a typical hydrocodone dose?
15mg q4
Rescue pain are based on what fraction of the 24 hour total daily dose? how often is the rescue dose given?
1/6 of the total daily dose and given q 4 hours
How long (hour range) do IV opioids last?
1-2 hours
How long (hours) do oral opioids last?
4 hours
If pain has subsided by what percentage range can the dosage be decreased each day?
25-50% each day
What vitamin deficiencies are caused by chemotherapy?
folic acid
vitamin K
At what body weight loss (%) is parenteral nutrition started?
20%
Radiation therapy can cause alternation in production of oral cavity substance?
saliva
What med is used for anti-emesis in cancer treatment?
ondansetron (Zofran)
What receptor does ondansetron block?
5-HT receptors
What class of med is ondanstetron?
serotonin antagonist
What 2 side effects does a specific serotonin antagonist lack that makes it preferable over a conventional anti-emetic?
lack of extrapyrimidal side effects
akathisia (restless leg)
Akathisia is associated with increased levels of what neurotransmitter?
norepinephrine
What side effect is more common with specific serotonin antagonists than conventional anti-emetics?
mild headache