Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a myopathy?
Is a motor dysfxn due to a disease of the muscle.
What can cause myopathies?
Muscle membrane abnormalities, cytoskeletal protein abnormalities, metabolism errors, inflammatory destruction, toxins
What are things to look out for clinically in regards to myopathy?
muscle bulk, palpation, and percussion. Also reflexes and weakness.
What is important about weakness, muscle bulk, palpation, percussion, and reflexes?
The distribution (proximal and symmetric).
Preserved or enlarged. Palpation induarated or tender (unreliable).
Diminished muscle contraction.
Parallel degree of muscle strength.
What clinical fx's may suggest that weakness is not due to myopathy?
If it is distal, fasciculations occur, tremors are present, sensory signs, fatigue, and abscence of reflexes occur.
What do the following things indicate:
1) distal weakness, 2)fasciculations, 3) tremor, 4) sensory signs, & 5) pathologic fatigue
1) neuropathy
2) ant. horn cell syndrome
3) per. neuropathy, ant. horn cell disease, or central process
4) per. neuropathy or central process
5) NMJ disorder
What dose MERRF stand for and what are its symptoms?
Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers
Myoclonus, gen. seizures, ataxia, dementia, hearing loss, optic atrophy, & muscle weakness
What does MELAS stand for and what are its symptoms?
Mitochondrial lactic acidosis and strokes
Encephalopathy, high lactic acid levels in serum/CSF, and stroke-like episodes
What are fx's of KEARNS-SAYRES syndrome?
Ophthalmoplegia, retinitis pigmentosa, abnormal cardiac conduction, & myopathy
What is a dynamic glycogen metabolism disorder?
It relates to exercise intolerance (cramps, pain, myoglobinuria)
What is the one fx of static glycogen metabolism disorders?
Fixed weakness
Mitochondrial myopathies are classified by defects in what things?
tranport, substrate utilization, Kreb's cycle, oxidation/phosphorylation, or coupling
Most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by what?
Nuclear DNA
What fx of cell division causes some mitochondria DNA to have no mutants, some mutants, or be predominantly mutants?
Why is the nervous system more susceptible to mitochondrial disorders?
It requires a constant supply of energy
Why do most mitochondrial myopathies have a maternal pattern of transmission and affect males & females equally?
Mitochondria are inherited from the mother
What does a classic muscle biopsy demonstrate in reference to mitochondrial disorders?
ragged red fibers, and abnormalities in oxidative enzymes stains (NADH, succinyl dehydrogenase, & cytochrome oxidase)
What clinical fx's suggest weakness is not due to myopathy?
distal weakness, fasciculations, tremor, sensory signs, pathologic fatigue & early absence of reflexes
What do distal weakness and fasciculations suggest?
Neuropathy and ant. horn cell syndrome.
What does a tremor suggest?
Peripheral neuropathy, ant. horn cell disease, or central process
What do sensory signs (symptoms) and pathologic fatigue suggest?
Peripheral neuropathy, and a NMJ disorder