Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/51

Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three Muscular Actions?
Motion
Support
Leverage
What are the three TYPES of muscle?
Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth
What are the four FUNCTIONS of muscle?
Motion
Stabilize
Regulate (Organ volume)
Heat
What are four characteristics of muscle?
Excitable
Contractible
Extensible
Elastic
What are Motor Units?
Muscles and their nerves
Motor Units provide this to enable muscles to contract.
Action potentials
What is the interface between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma?
Neuro-muscular junction
How many muscle fibers does a single motor unit involve?
10-2000

(Avg 150)
Where is the action potential transmitted by the Ach?
Neuro-muscular junction
What is a broad band of connective tissue?
Fascia
What are the three types of Fascia? What do they cover?
Epimysium- Entire muscle
Perimysium- Covers fasciculi
Endomysium- Individual fibers
What are extensions of deep fascia? What is their purpose?
Tendon
They are surrounded by the Tendon sheath and ease movement
What are extensions of the connective tissue and what do they attach mucle to?
Aponneuroses
Bone or other muscles.
What do skeletal muscles consist of?
Fibers
What are the compartments called that contain the thick and thin myofibrils?
Sacromeres
What are the thick myofibrils?
Myosin
What are the Thin myofibrils?
ACTIN
Troponin and tropomysin
What type of proteins are Actin and Myosin considered to be?
Contractile
What type of proteins are troponin and tropomysin considered?
Regulatory
What are cross bridges?
projecting heads of myosin containing ATP binding sites and Actin
What stabilizes thick filaments in the sacromere?
Elastic filaments
What is the best term for this description?: A Sliding filament mechanism
Contraction
During contraction what pulls on the Actin causing them to slide together?
Myosin cross bridges
What shortens during contraction?
The Sacromeres
What is the energy used to trigger contraction called?
ATP
What begins the relaxation process?
Ach is broken down by ACHsterase.
The breakdown of ACH changes the action potential of the ____ initiating the movement of ______ back into the sacroplasmic reticulum.
Sacrolemma and sacroplasmic reticulum,

Calcium
How does the Calcium get back into the sacroplasmic reticulum?
Active Transport
What is the Calcium binding protein called?
Calsequestrin
How is muscle tone sustained?
By contracting and relaxing.. simply by maintaining posture can do it.
Which type of system provides energy for maximal muscle performance for approx 15 seconds and is useful for short bursts of energy?
Creatine Phosphate
The partial catabolic breakdown of glucose generates ATP, is ___ and generates energy using the glycogen lactic acid system. How long does this provide energy for your muscle performance?
30-40 seconds
How does Aerobic respiration work?
Complete oxidation of glucose using oxygen contained in myoglobin, then diffuses from blood to muscle.
This generates a deficiency of O that must be recovered by recovery oxygen consumption. (Breathing hard)
Describe what happens when a muscle fiber has become fatigued.
It will not respond to stimuli.
Muscle Tensions is the force developed due to the number of ____ which contract to respond to a particular stimuli.
fibers
The twitch of muscle tension involves a ___ contraction of all muscle fibers from a ___ action potential change.
Brief
Single
The Muscle tension WAVE is where the contraction strength increases because of the 2nd and 3rd action potential not relaxing from the first and can result in what?
Tentai
Treppe
(Staircase)
Tension due to contractile activity is what type of tension?
Active
Tension resulting from the supporting elastic filaments is:
Passive tension
Types of Skeletal muscles may be described by color. Which muscles have Lg. amts of myoglobin?
Red
Which muscle has small amounts of myoglobin? (color)
White.
What do the mitochondria, blood vessels, and sacroplasmic reticulum determine?
Diameter of muscle fibers.
Numbers of fibers do not change with exercise. T or F
True
Muscle Regeneration is limited after the first year due to:
Enlargement of existing cells.
What type of muscle has a limited capacity for regeneration?
Smooth
At what age does muscle loss start to occur?
30
Decreases in
Reflex rate and
maximal strength rate
Muscle movement occurs by exerting force on:___
Resulting in:___
Tendons
pulling on the bone or other structure
Most muscles cross at least one ____ when they contract
joint/articulation
What do the muscles crossing the articulation and draw bones toward one another form?
A Lever.
Levers are acted on by load and effort and are catagorized by 3 types:
1st class
2nd class
3rd class
Determined by Fulcrum effort and resistance
Fasciculi are bundles of fibers that are parallel and may occur in 4 patterns:
This arrangement determines power and range.
1- Parallel
2-fusiform
3-pennate
4-circular