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104 Cards in this Set

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THE GLOBULAR HEAD OF THE MYOSIN PROTEIN THAT COMPOSES THE THICK FILAMENT. DURING THE MUSCLE CONTRACTION, THE CROSS BRIDGE BINDS TO THE THIN FILAMENTS AND FLEXES, THEREBY MOVING ACTIN TOWARD THE CENTER OF SARCOMERE.
CROSS BRIDGE
A CHEMICAL PROCESS IN WHICH AN ENZYME USES WATER TO SPLIT ONE MOLECULE INTO SMALLER PARTS
HYDROLYSIS
THE CHEMICAL PROCESS THAT COMBINES 2 MOLECULES INTO SINGLE LARGER MOLECULE. tHE PROCESS INVOLVES AN ENZYME, THE REMOVAL OF ONE WATER MOLECULE, AND THE FORMATION OF A COVALENT BOND TO JOIN THE TWO MOLECULES
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
A PROTEIN THAT ACTS AS A BIOLOGICAL CATALYST TO ALTER THE RATE OF A CHEMICAL REACTIONS
ENZYME
TISSUES OF THE BODY CHARACTERIZED BY WIDELY SPACED CELLS WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF INTTERCELULAR MATRIX. THE FUNCTIONS OF TISSUES VARY : SUPPORT, INSULATE, TRANSPORT AND PROVIDE STORAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
STRIPES:IN THE CASE OF SKELETAL MUSCLE, THE STRIPES ARE CREATED BY REPEATING SERIES OF DARK AND LIGHT BANDS.
STRIATIONS
A TERM APPLIED TO SKELETAL MUSCLE TO INDICATE THAT THESE MUSCLES ARE GENERALLY UNDER CONSCIUS CONTROL BY THE HIGHER BRAIN CENTERS.
VOLUNTARY
A TERM APPLIED TO SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLE TO INDICATE THAT THESE MUSCLES ARE NOT UNDER DIRECT CONSCIOUS CONTROL BUT ARE GENERALLY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
INVOLUNTARY
CORD OF DENSE FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT ATTACHES MUSCLE TO BONE
TENDON
BUNDLE OF MUSCLE CELL(FIBER) BOUND TOGETHER BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE TO FORM A FUNCTIONAL UNIT.
FASCICLE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE SURROUNDING THE ENTIRE MUSCLE
EPIMYSIUM
CONNECTIVE TISSUE SURROUNDING THE FASCICLE
PERIMYSIUM
THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE WRAPPING THAT SURROUNDS THE INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE CELL (FIBER)
ENDOMYSIUM
A CONTRACTILE CELL WITH MULTIPLE PERIPHERAL NUCLEI AND VISIBLE STRIATIONS. tHESE CELLS AR EUNDER VOLUNTARY CONTROL, BECAUSE THEY ARE ELEONGATED, SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE OFTEN REFERRED TO A MUSCLE FIBERS
SKELETAL MUSCLE CELL
THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE THAT CONTAINS THE GENETIC MATERIAL OF THE CELL
NUCLEUS
THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE THAT CONTAINS THE GENETIC MATERIAL OF THE CELL
NUCLEUS
THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF THE MUSCLE CELL
SARCOLEMMA
THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM OF THE MUSCLE CELL. ITS INTERCONNECTING TUBULES SURROUND EACH MYOFIBRIL LIKE THE SLEEVE OF A LOOSELY KNIT SWEATER
SARCOLASMIC RETICULUM (SR)
the sac-like regions of the sarcopplasmic reticulum lying adjacent to the T-tubules, serve as specialized reservoir of calcium ions/
TERMINAL CISTERNAE
an invagination of the sarcolemma that projects deep into the muscle cell"s interior.
T-TUBULE
a three- unit group consisting of one T tubule lying between two adjacent terminal cisternae.
TRIAD
a cylindrical bundle of contractile filaments within the skeletal muscle cell.
MYOFIBRIL
the cytoplasmic organelle that is the site of ATP synthesis, refereed to as the " POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL"
MITOCHONDRION
the intracellular fluid in which the organelles are suspended and molecules and ions a re dissolved.
CYTOSOL
composed of contractile protens actin(thin filament) and myosin(thick filaments)
MYOFILAMENTS
the light region of the myofibrils striation that alternates with dark (A band) ; contains only THIN filaments. this is the distance between the adjacent thick filaments, therefore the I band gets narrower during muscle contraction.
I BAND
the region of the myofibril's striations that has the darker appearance, also called the DARK BAND . alternated with the light regions(I BAND) . the A band corresponds to of the THICK filament.
A BAND
a lighter stripe in the center of the dark A band corresponding to the region between the thin filaments. Its width varied depending upon the degree of muscle contraction. The H zone is widest when the muscle is relaxed and stretched
H ZONE
the zigzag line bissecting the I band. The Z line is actually a protein disc that anchor the thin filaments and connects adjacent myofibrils.
Z LINE
a line in the center of the H zone consisting of a protein that connect neighboring mysin filaments.
M LINE
THE CONTRACTILE UNIT OF THAT EXTENDS FROMONE z LINE TO THE NEXT ; includes the entire A band and half of the I band (to the Z line) on each side of the A band.
SARCOMERE
1. MUSCLE 2. FASCICLE 3. MUSCLE CELL (MUSCLE FIBER) 4. MYOFIBRIL 5. MYOFILAMENTS
ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL OF SKELETAL MUSCLES
the place where a motor neuron stimulates a muscle , result brought by the impulses from motor neurons.The muscle cell and motor neuron do not actually touch, but are separated by a synaptic cleft.
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
the voltage that exists across a cells plasma membrane when the cell is at rest(not conducting an impuls); cell interior is relatively more negative that cell exterior. The resting membrane potential is measred in millivolts.
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
an electrical signal consisting of the depolarization and subsequent repolarization of a nerve or a muscle cell membrane., travels along the membrane and functions as a signal to initiate an activity(ex: muscle contraction)
ACTION POTENTIAL
a decrease in the negative resting membrane potential(the voltage thats exists across the plasma membrane)
DEPOLARIZATION
a single nerve cell that extends from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland
MOTOR NEURON
membranous organelles containing the neurotransmitter substances; found within the axon terminals of neurons
SYNAPTIC VESSICLES
THE NEUROTRANSMITTER RELEASED BY A MOTOR NEURON AT THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION; ONE OF THE PRICIPAL NEUROTRANSMITTERS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
ACETHLCHOLINE
the invagination of the sarcolemma that projects deep into the muscle cell interior.
T- TUBULE
the swollen, distal end of an axon; contains a neurotransmitter substance within the synaptic vessicles
AXON TERMINAL
the space between the axon terminal and the membrane of the traget cell, the space between the axon terminal and the folded region of the muscle cell membrane called the MOTOR END PLATE
SYNAPTIC CLEFT
PLASMA MEMBRANE OF THE MUSCLE CELL
SARCOLEMMA
1.Action Potential arrives at axon terminal: Ach is released 2. Depolarization of the motor end plate 3. Action potential propagates along the sarcolemma and T tubules 4. Contraction of sarcomeres.
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION ACTIVITY
integral proteins in cell membrane that respond to changes in membrane volatge by changing shape, which opens or close calcium specific channels. when the channles are open, calcium ions move from one side of the mebrane to another.
VOLATGE REGULATED CALCIUM CHANNELS
calcium atoms with two positive charges; concentrated in the extracellular fluid and the terminal cisternae but enter the cytosol where they play an important role in many process such as muscle contraction and the release of neurotrnasmitters.
CALCIUM IONS
MOLECULES RELEASED FORM SYNAPTIC VESICLES IN NEURON AXON TERMINALS; BIND TO RECEPTOR SITES ON TARGET CELLS, SIULATING OR INHIBITING THEM EX: aCH BINDS TO RECEPTOR SITES ON THE MUSCLE CELL MOTOR END PLATES, STIMULATING CONTRACTION.
NEUROTRANSMITTER
the bulk transport of material out of cell by first fusing a membrane bound vesicle with plasma membrane. when the membrane ruptures the contents of the vesicle are released into the extracellualr space.
EXOCYTOSIS
the movement of molecules form the extracellular envt. into the intracellular envt.
INFLUX
the movement of molecules from the intracellualr envt. to extracellular envt.
EFFLUX
folded ortion of the sarcolemma in close contact with the synaptinc ending of the axon terminal
MOTOR END PLATE
a specific region on a protein to wtracted and attaches. which anoteher molecule becomes attracted and attaches. also called a BINDING SITES
RECEPTOR SITE/BINDING SITES
an enzyme located in the synaptic cleft that rapidly degrades the neurotransmiter Ach. In muscle cells, the immdeiate breakdown of ACH preents the repetitive stimulation ot the motor end plate in the abscence of Action potential.
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE , an organic molecule that stores and release chemical energy within the cell, composed of ADENINE, RIBOSE SUGAR AND 3 PHOSPHATE GROUPS. ; THE ENERGY NECESSARY FOR MUSCLE CONTRACTION ARE PROVIDED BY THIS
ATP
broken down by the process of hydolysis, in which an enzyme uses water to split one molecule into smaller parts.
HYDROLIZATION
ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE , one of the end product of ATP hydolysis; composed of ADENINE, RIBOSE SUGAR AND TWO PHOSPHATE GROUPS.
ADP
INORGANIC PHOSPHATE , A PHOSPHATE GROUP that is not bonded to an organic molecule such as ATP or creatinine phosphate.
INORGANIC PHOSPHATE
the protein that composes the major portion of the THIN filament ; double helical chain ; COMPOSED OF SPECIFIC BINDING SITES TO WHICH MYOSIN CROSS BRIDGE
ACTIN
a protein molecule that entwines around actin and blocks the myosin binding sites. This prevents CROSSBRIDGE cycling until it is moves aside by troponin. one component of THIN filament. ;
TROPOMYOSIN
a three popypeptide chains that binds calcium ions and drags tropomyosin off the myosin binding sites on actin. It is one component of the THIN filament.
TROPONIN
1. the influx of calcium, trigerring the exposure of binding sites on actin 2. the binding of myosin to actin 3. the power stroke of the cross bridge that causes the sliding of the thin filaments. 4. the binding of ATP to the cross bridge, which results in the cross bridge disconnecting from actin 5. the hydolysis of ATP, ehich leads to the reenergizing and repositioning of the cross bridge 6. transport of calcium ions back to sarcoplasmic reticulum.
SIX STEPS OF THE CROSS BRIDGE CYCLING
the globular head of the myosin protein that composes the thick filament. During the muscle contraction, the cross bridge binds to thin filament and flexes; thereby moving the thin filament toward the center of sarcomere.
CROSS BRIDGE
the chemical process that combines two molecules into a single larger molecule. The process involves an enzyme, the removal of one water molecule and the formation of a covalent bond to join the two molecules. ; its like money in the bank 'ENERGY CURRENCY"
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
A PROTEIN THAT ACTS A BIOLOGICAL CATALYST TO ALTER THE RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS.
ENZYMES.
1. Energizing the power stroke of the myosin cross bridge 2. disconnecting the myosin cross bridge from the binding site on actin at the conclusion of a power stroke 3. energizing the calcium ion pump
ROLE OF ATP
stored or incative energy that has the potential or capability to do work but is not presently doing so.
POTENTIAL ENERGY
A BIOLOGICAL CATALYST THAT USES WATER TO BREAK ONE MOLECULE INTO SMALLER PARTS.
HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES
When ATP supplies are low, muscle cells uses 3 process:
1. HYDROLYSIS OF CREATININE PHOSPHATE 2. GLYCOLYSIS 3. KREBS CYCLE AND OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
ATP SYNTHESIS
IMMEDIATE SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR REBUILDING ATP.
an organic compound in the muscle cells that serves as a brief source of energy
CREATININE PHOSPHATE
a cellular metabolic process involving a series of enzymes and reactions to BREAK DOWN GLUCOSE into pyruvic acid. Produces two net of ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Does not require oxygen.
GLYCOLYSIS
a major metabolic pathway within the mitochondrion that yields CO2, small amt. of ATP, and reduced ' coenzymes that enter the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. also called the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. ; pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl CoA when O2 arrived and proceed to end product
KREBS CYCLE
hydrolytic process that transfers energy and a phosphate group from creatinine phosphate to ADP, forming ATP , amount of CP is limited and depleted rapidly.
SUBSTRATE PHOSPHORYLATION
creatinine phosphate must turn into another source of energy
GLUCOSE
major source of energy for synthesizing ATP . available to muscles in 2 sources:
1. enters the muscle cell directly from the BLOOD
2. produces by hydrolysis of glycogen stored in the muscle cell
SOURCES OF GLUCOSE
a polysaccharide composed opf glucose subunits; found primarily in the muscle and liver cells of animals.
GLYCOGEN
1. 2 ATP molecules
2. pyruvic acid
END PRODUCT OF GLYCOLYSIS
a 3 carbon compound resulting from glycolysis
PYRUVUC ACID
pyruvic acid is converted to this in abscence of O2, this is the end product of anaerobic pathway, excess lactic acid build up rapidly makes a MUSCLE FATIGUE
LACTIC ACID
the metabolic process that do not require O2
ANAEROBIC
O2 is available to muscle cells from difft. sources: 1. O2 enter to blood
2. O2 stored in myoglobin
SOURCES OF O2 IN MUSCLE CELL
a red pigment protein similar to hemoglobin that stores O2 in skeletal muscles.
MYOGLOBIN
when O2 is present in the aerobic pathway will proceed to end product: 1.CO2 2. H2O 3. 36 ATP molecules
END PRODUCT IN AEROBIC PATHWAY IN KREBS CYCLE
the metabolic process that require the presenc of O2
AEROBIC
HYDROLYSIS OF CREATININE PHOSPHATE - (GLYCOGEN AND GLUCOSE ) GLYCOLYSIS -PYRUVIC ACID-lactic acid(W/oO2)/aCETYL CoA(w/O2)-Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation-ATP-end:h20,Co2,36 ATP
SUMMARY OF ATP PRODUCTION
the required to compteley oxidize the lactic acid formed during the anaerobic metabolism and to replenish the depleted stroes of ATP and creatinine phosphate
OXYGEN DEBT
1. Lactic acid converted to pyruvuc then enters krebs 2. ATP is used to rephosphorylate creatinine into creatinine phosphate 3. glycogen is synthesized from glucose 4. addtional O2 binds to myoglobin
PROCESS OF RECOVERY AND RESTING IN O2 DEBT
organic compund in muscle cells that serves a brief source of energy
CREATININE PHOSPHATE
1. white muscle fiber 2. red muscle fibers
TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER
large in diameter, light color(abscence of myoglobin) , few capillaries and mitochondrion, high glycogen, synthesize mainly by GLYCOLYSIS, also called FAST TWITCH GLYCOLYTIC FIBERS
WHITE MUSCLE FIBER
- suited for power and speed activitiescoz glycolysis uses ATP quickly, rapid crossbridge makes fast contractions, large numbers of filaments present, fatigue rapidly coz of LACTIC acid build up and depletion of glycogen.
METABLISM OF WHITE MUSCLE FIBER
-half of WMF, dark red in color coz of Myoglobin present, surrounded with capillaries, lots of mitochondrion, LOW glycogen, synthesize ATP in Krebs and O2 Phos. coz of present of O2
RED MUSCLE FIBER
-suited for activities for ENDURANCE AND CONTINOUS CONTRACTION, uses Krebs and Phos. -crossbridge is slow, also called SLOW TWITCH OXIDATIVE FIBERS , fatigue resistance, high endurance
METABOLISM OF RED MUSCLE FIBER
SPRINTER:more WMF, fast twitch, fatigue prone
LONG DISTANCE RUNNER : more RMF, slow twitch, fatigue resistant
EXAMPLES OF muscle fiber
GLYCOGEN-GLUCOSE-GLYCOLYSIS-PYRUVIC ACID AND ATP-ACETYLcOA-KREBS AND o2pHOS -ATP
AEROBIC PATHWAY
motor neuron and all of the muscle cells it stimulates,
contraction of a skelatal muscle is the result of the activity of groups of muscle cell. SIZE AND NUMBER of motor unit is imot, in determining the strength of contraction.
MOTOR UNIT
stimulation of additional motor units to increase strength of contraction
RECRUITMENT
a neuron within the brain or spinal cord that lies between sensory and motor neurons, also called ASSOCIATION NEURON
INTERNEURON
advantage of having only a few muscle cells per motor unit
GENERATE PRECISE MOVEMENTS
SMALL MOTOR UNITS, FEW MUSCLE CELLS, PRECISE MOVT. NEEDED
SMALL MOTOR UNITS EX: muscles of the eye
gross movt.,large motor unit w large number of muscle cells
LARGE MOTOR UNITS EX: tigh(quadriceps)
the force produces by a muscle in order to perform work /force of contraction
TENSION
nearly constant state of low level tension and resistance to stretch in a muscle, maintaines by a spinal cord,and asynchronous stimulation of random motor units result to firmness in muscle. if cut or damaged MUSCLES BECOMES FLACCID coz of no nerve stimulation, and muscle loses its tone.
MUSCLE TONE
single muscle cells respond to stimulation of ALL OR NONE FASHION , variation on tension 1. frequency of stimulation 2. number of motor units recruited 3. degree of muscle stretch
FACTORS AFFECTING MUSCLE TENSION
any change in the internal or external environment that changes the level of excitability of an excitable cell.
STIMULUS