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42 Cards in this Set

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psalms
poems of praise from the Hebrew Book of Psalms. often chanted during christian services (jewish background)
cantillation
chanting of sacred texts. a system for publiclly reading scripture based on melodic formulas that reflected the phrase divisions of the texts. Certain readings were assigned to particular days or festivals.
Liturgy
"smells, bells" what we do to worship. It's the whole body andpractice of worship including texts and music and ritual actions assigned to specific days. (ex. Christian liturgy)
Rite
unique to each branch or region of Christianity. Due to the diversification of early christianity. Rite includes church calendar (ex. Roman Rite)
Use
the minor details of a service associated with a particular location. ex. (Salisbury Use)
echoi
eight modes of Byzantine chant that served as a model for the eight modes of the western church.
Byzantine chant
most characteristic chants were hymns, (more common to east than west.) many are still sung in Greek Orthodox services today. many were created through a process of CENTONIZATION (combining standard formulas to make a melody)
Ambrosian Chant
songs of the Milanese rite. (the most important center forthe western church outside Rome) Many chants are similar to those of Rome, indicating A) an interchange B) a common source.
Gregorian Chant
music inccorectly credited to Pope Gregory. (story of dove singing to him, had scribes write it down *C!- there was no notation at the time of his rule) The story was needed however, to glorify it. P.S.- notation began for political reasons. Charlemagne wanted them to continue singing like Romans.
Old Roman Chant
uses the same texts as Gregorian, representing same liturgical tradition of eight century rome. Melodies are more ornate, but resemlbe Greg Chant... derive from common source?? Historians not sure which evolved from which.
Neumes
"gesture" indicated the number of notes per syllable and the direction of melody. more of a reminder than a way of notating... melody still had to be learned orally. ( derived from signs of inflection like in French language)
heighted/diastematic neumes
10th/11th century practice of placing neumes at varing heights above text to indicate the size/direction of interval
Martianus Capella
wrote "the marriage of mercury and philology" Described seven liberal arts (including music/harmonics)
Boethius
wrote "de institutione musica" sees music as a science of numbers/ratios. Sources rest on greek mathematics.

Three types of music:
Musica mundana
musica humana
musica instrumentalis
final
the main note in themode and usually the last note in the melody. each mode is paired with another that shares the same final.
mutation
changing hexachords.
the Guidonian hand
a mnumonic device used for locating the picthes of the system of hexachords by pointing to the joints of the left hand.
church calendar
a cycle including events and commemoration of saints with a feast day. most important are xmas and easter. Both are preceded by periods of prep and penitence.
mass
evolved from commemorations of the Last supper. The central act being the communion. performed every day in monasteries, convents, and major churches.. and more than once on important feast days.
Proper of the Mass
texts for parts of the amss taht vary from day to day. They are called by their function.
Ordinary of the Mass
texts that do not change. Named by their initial words.
The office
early christians often prayed and sang psalms at regular times othrough the day. a series of 8 services. particularly important in monasteries and convents.
antiphon
a chant sung before and after the psalm (FIND MORE) PLUS RESPONSORIES
canticles
poetic passages from parts of the bible other than thebook of psalms. part of the office observance
Middle age texts for mass/office
MASS
texts-missal
chants- gradual.

OFFICE
texts- Breviary
music- Antiphoner

late19th, 20 cent- Liber Usualis (book of Common Use) "greatest hits"
psalm tones
formulas for singing psalms in the office. designed to fit any psalm. one tone for each of 8 modes.

each has:
+intonation- a rising motive used only for the first verse.
+recitation on the tenor
+mediant- a cadence forthe middleof each verse
+further recitation
+termination- a final cadence for each verse.

The last verse of the psalm is followed by the "lesser doxology" a formula of praise to the Trinity. sung to the same psalm tone.
Trope
expanded an existing chant in one of three ways
1 new words and music befreo the chant and often between phrases
2 melody only, extanding melismas or adding new ones
3 text only

incresaed the slemnity of a chant by enlarching it, and offered musicians an outlet for creativity.
trope composition flourished in monasteries during the 10th and 11th cent
sequence
set syllabically to a text that is mostly in couplets and sung after the Alleluia at Mass.

most consist of an initial single sentence, a series of paired sentences , and a final unpaired sentence. A BB CC ... N.

like tropes, sequences embellished the liturgy and provided an outlet for creativity.

(council of Trent banned most sequences to attempt greater uniformity)
Liturgical Dramas
Tropes that took the form of dialogues. Dialogue was sung responsively and acompanied by appropriate dramatic action. Although nt strictly part of the liturgy, they were linked to it, recorded in liturgical books and performed in church.

mostly sung by men
hildegard of Bingen
(1098-1179)- achieved great success as prioress and abbess of her own convent and as a writer and composer. Her works vary from syllabic hymns and sequences to higly melismatic responsories.
organum
two ormore voices singing different notes in agreeable combinations. The term was used for several styles of polyphongy from 9th-13th cent. Prob. best to add a modifier to be more clear.

REVIEW NOTES ON ORGANUM/POLYPHONY (quiz)
ligatures
instead of using note shapes to show relative durations, they (Notre Dame Composers of the late 12th cent.) used combinations of note groups called ligatures.
Leonin
compiled "Magnus Liber Organi" (the great book of polyphony) collection of 2voice settings of the solo portions of the responsorial chants for major feast.

long fluid melodis, playing with dissonance and resolving in consoncance. Upper voice is sung in free rhythm.
Perotin
wrote substitue clausulas in discant style. tenor doesn't just sing a series of longs, but repeats a rhythmic motive based on a rhythmic mode.

ORGANUm
three/four voice organum. upper voices all used the rhythmic modes, allowing exact coordination among them.
voice exchange
voices trade phrases. (used in triplum/quadruplum)
conductus
Notre Dame Composers also wrote pohlyphonice settings for 2-4 voices of the same types of text used in the closely rleated genres of monphonic conductus. and Aquitanian versus. ::rhymed, rhythmic, strophic Latin Poems rarely taken from the liturgy though usually still on a sacred topic.

tenor is newly composed
voices sing text together in same rhythm
words are set syllabically

CAUDEAE smelismatic passages within conductus.
motet
composers at Notre Dame 13th cent. added newly written Latin words to the upper voices of discant clausulae, like texts added to chant melismas. became the leading polyphnic genre for scred AND secular music.
franconian notation
composer/theroist Franco of Clogne. 1280. relative durations were signified by note shapes, a characeteristic of western notation ever since.
Ars Nova
french musicla style inaugurated by Vity in the 1310's and continued through the 1370s. "new art" innovation s in rhythmic notation. 1. allowed duple (imperfect) meter. 2. the division of the semibreve into minims.
mensuration signs
symbols that are the ancestors of modern time signatures. introduced around 1340, (Ars Nova)
Isorhythm
device used by vitry in which tenor is laid out in segments of identical rhythm. theorists recognized two rcurring elemnts in motet tenors
repeating rhthym- talea
recurring melody- color
hocket
two voices alternate in rapid succession each resting whilethe other sings. passages appear in some 13th cent conductus and motets and are frequently used in 14th cent isorhythmic works in coordination iwth the talea.

pieces that use hocket extensively were themselves called hockets. most were untexted and could be performed by either voices or instruments.