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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
20th century Developments
1st half:hardship and destruction
2nd half:Colonial empires dismantled
-unprecedented rapid economic growth.
-Widespread gain in principle of equal rights
-Technology and science advancement
Time period
Musical styles
-Seen as time of revolt and revolution in music
-Composers broke with tradition and rules
-Key, pitch center, and harmonic progression practices of the past were mostly abandoned.
How was the 20th century music diversitied?
-Musical influences drawn from asia and africa
-folk music incorporated into personal styles
-Medieval, renaissance, and baroque music was re-discovered, performed and recorded
Tone Color
-Unusual playing techniques are called for
-Percussion use greatly expanded
-Music not written for choirs of instruments-unusual groupings fo instruments for small ensembles.
-Consonance and Dissonance
-Harmony and treatment of chords changed
-Before 1900:consonant and disonant after:degrees of consonant
no central key note
12 tone system
atonel, but with strict rules concerning scale use
Impressionism and symbolism
Musical outgrowth of french art and poetry
-Used broad brush strokes and vibrant colors
-Viewed up close the painting appears unfinished but far away has truth
Claude Debussy
-french impressionist composer
-crossed romantic/20th century
-studied in paris and rome
-lived large-lived luxurious and stayed in debt.
-music:attempted to capture art that impressionistt artists could not
-expanded harmonic vocabulary and fracture
-new compositions and devices and forms of classical and baroque
-music doesn't have to be described
-Written for small ensembles
(not classical)
Igor Stravinsky
-Early success writing ballet music
-music:vocal and instrumental
-Moved due to wars
-Attemps to explore inner feelings rather than depict outard appearances.
-Deliberate distortions
Arnold Schoenberg
-Born in Vienna(1874-1951)
-First to completely abandon the traditional tonal system
-Father to the 12-tone system
-Taught at ucla
Berg and Webern were inspired greatly by who?
Arnold Schoenberg
Bela Bartok
-Hungarian, 1881-1945
-ethnomusicologist-preserved his own culture(musically)
-folk songs-basis for music
Charles Ives
-American, 1874-1954
-Son of a professional band master
-Work as insurance agent, composed on the side
-Won pulitzer prize in 1947
-Wrote original music
-Music:based on american folk songs
Aaron Copland
-American, 1900-1990
-Wrote music in modern style more accessible to audience than many other composers
-Drew from american follore for topics
-Billy the kid, rodeo
-Wrote simple, yet highly professional music
Musical Styles since 1945
-Many societal chages since WWII
-Instant communication has altered the world
Characteristics of Music since 1945
Increased use of the 12-tone system
12-tone techniques extended
Chance music
includes the random notes
Minimalist music
-Has tonality, pulse, and repetition
-Dynamics, texture, and harmony are constant over time
Jazz History
-Developed in the US
-began around 1900 in New Orleans
-Originally music for bars and brothels
Early practitioners primarily black
-Tremendous impact on pop and art music.
Jazz music Characteristics
-Syncopated rhythm
-Steady Beat
-Call and Response
Jazz in Society
-Originally music for dancing
-geographical center has moved around
Roots of Jazz
-Blend of elements of several cultures
-West african emphasis on improvisation, percussion and call and response techniques
-American brass band influence on instrumentation
-European harmonic and structural practice
-Blues and ragtime were immediate sources
-Dance hall and saloon music
-Piano music with left hand "oom-pah" part
-right hand syncopated
-King of ragtime was Scott Joplin(1868-1917)
-Vocal and instrumental form
-12 measure musical structure
-3 part vocal structure:a a' b
Tone color of jazz
Usually performed by combo of 3-8 players
-backbone is rhythm section
-main solo instruments trumpet, trombone, saxophone, clarinet, vibraphone, piano
-Bends, smears, shakes, scoops, falls
Jazz Improvisation
-created and performed simultaneously-each performance is different
-Usually in theme and variations form
-32 bar structure:AABA format
-Popular 1935-45
-written music
-primarily for dancing
-large bands(15-20 players)
-1940's and early 1950's
-Meant for listening - not dancing
-Melodic phrases varied in length
-Chords built w/ 6 or 7 notes
Cool Jazz
-More calm and relaxed than bebop
-Relied more upon arrangements
Free Jazz
-simialr to chance music
-solo sections of indeterminate length
-Improvisation by multiple players at once