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19 Cards in this Set

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Diet of Worms
in 1521 the German nobility presented the emperor with a list of 102 oppressive church burdens and abuses said to be corrupting the care of German souls
Modern Devotion
constructive lay religious movemnet in northern Europe on eve of the Reformation that was that of the Brothers of the Common Life, a kind of boarding school for reform minded laity. it fostered religious life outside formal churches and apart from formal religious vows. spread the northern europe and some of southern. took care of famous youths and helped develop their philosophies. has been seen as the source of humanist, protestant and catholic reform movements in 16th century
benefice
medeival church system that permitted important ecclesiastical posts to be sold to the highest bidders and had often failed to enforce the requirement that priests and bishops had to live in their parishes and dioceses. threatened a vibrant lay spiritual life. gave distant control of church offices causing complaints of greed
John Tetzel
enlisted to preach the indulgence in Albrecht's territoires. knew how to stir people. his ideas were epsecially protested by Luther
ninety five theses
embraced by Nuremberg humanists who translated and widely circulated them. made luther a central figure in an already organzied national german cultural movement against foreign influence and competition
Ulrich Zwingli
the leader of the Swiss reformation, humanistically educated. credited Erasmus. an eloquent critic of swiss mercenary service, indulgences, and superstition. petitioned for end to clerical celibacy. unceremoniously executed on the battlefield
transubstantiation
an honored traditonal teaching questioned by the reforms
Anabaptists
rejected child baptism. originated by Conrad Grebel. pacifists, didnt swear oaths, didnt participate in secular offices. drew adherents from all social classes. came to power in Munster
John Calvin
born in a well to do french family. first identified with the french reform party.
catherine of aragon
had an unhappy marriage with king henry VIII. daughter of ferdinand and isabella of spain, their union produced a female heir. union was to keep alliance with spain
anne boleyn
Catherine's lady in waiting. henry was determined to make her his wife. executed for alleged treason and adultery. children declared illegitimate to throne
thomas cramner and thomas cromwell
harbored lutheran sympathies and became king's closest advisor after Wosley was dismissed. advised king to declare himself supreme in english spritual affairs. cramner became archbishop of canterbuy and led the convovation in invalidating the king's marriage to Catherine. Cromwell advised to marry Anne of Cleves to create an alliance with protestant princes of germany which caused to him to be dismissed and executed
act of succession
made Anne Boylen's children legitimate heirs to the throne. opposed by many like More and John FIsher
act of supremacy
declare Henry "the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England" opposed by many like More and John FIsher
king henry VIII
obsesed to get a mail heir to the trhone, cmae to believe god had cursed his union with catheine. executed More and John FIsher and many wives. didnt execute his last wife Catherine Parr. his boldnss in politics and domestics didnt extend to religion. remained pretty conservative with religion made only mild concession to protestants with the ten articles. a=ngered by growing popularity of protestant views. made clear he would not accept protestantism in his reign
Edward VI
son and successor of Henry VIII. only ten so reigned under Edward Seymour an the earl of Warwick who corresponed with John Calvin. repealed six articles and sanction calerical marriage. imposed thomas cramners Book of Common Prayer on all english churches
Jesuits
the Society of Jesus. recognized by church. members scattered through out the world
ignatius loyolay
founder of the new order of the Jesuits. a heroic figure. a dashing courtier and soldiero in his youth, began his pilgrimage after wounded in battle. underwnet a profound religious conversion. made a devotion guide Sp;irutal Exercises. countered reformation by challenging people to discipline themselves
the council of trent
met 3 times over 18 years dlayued by war plague and poitics. strictly under popes control. strengthened authority of local bishops by making requirements