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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Baroque period went from _______ to _______
The primary feature of music from the Baroque period is its balance of _______ and _______
Extravagance and Control
What branch of History is the musical term "Baroque" borrowed from?
Art History
Historians are more likely to call the Baroque musical period "The Age of _______"
Science historians are more likely to call the Baroque musical period "The Age of _______"
What historical figure plays the central role in the "Age of Absolutism"
King Louis XIV
The French court, ruled by ______, was the center of the cultural and political world during the late baroque
King Louis XIV
List THREE discoveries or inventions that come from the age of science:
(Any of the following)
-Newton's laws of physics
-The Telescope
-The Microscope
-The discovery of blood circulation in the body
-Galileo's observation that the Earth is not the center of the universe
True or false: Sponsorship of the arts diminished during the age of Absolutism
_______ was the main musical vehicle in the late baroque because of its lavish sets, intricate musical style, and expensive spectacle
Operas at the time were often allegorical tributes to _______
The people who paid for them
As evidenced by opera, _______ was evident in much art and music of Baroque period
Outside the influence of the French court, the _______ view of the world held sway
True or False: the Dutch were ruled by monarchs who emulated the French court
True or False: the Germans were ruled by monarchs who emulated the French court
The influence of ________ observation in the arts can be seen in the precise and accurate paintings of Jan Vermeer
Scales were refined during the age of science by more accurately tuning all the half steps: the new, more accurate scale was called the _______ scale
Chords were systematized to follow each other in a logical and functional way. This practice is called _______
Functional Harmony
The overall plan or structure for a piece of music is called
True or False: larger musical works had specific forms, but smaller pieces like dances did not have well-defined forms
True or False: conveying emotions through music was important to Baroque composers
True or False: Composers "scientifically" linked different keys, tempos, rhythms, melodic motives, etc, to emotional responses in the listener
As seen by Chippendale in furniture, Paul Revere in Silver, and Stradivarius in violins, the Baroque period, can also be called the age of _______
True of False: "Craftsmanship" in the baroque era rose to new heights
True or False: Music was seen as a high art form during the Baroque period
True or False: Music was seen as a craft during the Baroque period
Composers and musicians were employed and seen on the level of _______
Composers had three main institutions for employment: _______, _________, and _______
The Church
The Court
The Opera house
True or False: Music of the late baroque is methodical in its construction
In Baroque music, the main ideas are played fairly early on in a piece of music, and then ______ methodically throughout the piece
True or False: The time aspect of Baroque music is very steady
In much Baroque music there is a bass line that plays steady even notes. This part is known as a _______
Walking bass
True or False: In Baroque music, composers asked for new dynamic extremes from musicians
_______ is the relative loudness or quietness of a musical piece
Much baroque instrumental music is written for a group of string and continuo called a(n) _______
The Baroque orchestra is modeled on "The 24 Violins of the King" who played for whom?
King Louis XIV
List the instruments of the Baroque Orchestra
Violin 1
Violin 2
Bass Viol

Basso Continuo (or just Continuo):
List the instruments of the Festive Baroque Orchestra
Violin 1
Violin 2
Bass Viol

2 oboes
1 Bassoon

3 trumpets

2 Timpani

Basso Continuo (or just Continuo):
The _______ was a special kind of orchestra with added instruments to signify vicoty in battle or a successful hunt
Festive Baroque Orchestra
True or False: Baroque melody was simple and uncomplicated
The practice of adding fast notes and vocal effects such as trills to make a melody more florid and expressive is called
What is the texture of Baroque music? Why do we see it that way?
Polyphonic. Despite the fact that many pieces have good/functional harmony, they still count as polyphonic because of the independent melodic quality of the bass line (as seen in the "walking bass")
The _______ is a universal aspect of Baroque music
Basso Continuo
The _______ is a musician group of musicians playing the bass part of a piece of music and filling in chords
Basso Continuo
The basso continuo read a form of musical notation called _______ which gave them directions for filling in chords
Figured bass
True or False: Musical form in the baroque period is clear and well structured
Why are Baroque compositions so methodical and well-structured?
1. The patronage system demanded a large amount of work and composers had to devise a means of producing it quickly and consistently

2. The scientific spirit of the age affected composers to approach their works in a systematic manner
True or False: During the Baroque period, instrumental music was the norm in most cultures, even outside of Europe
How did Baroque instrumental composers deal with the questions of
-How long should the music be?
-What should the listener expect?
Standardized Form
The most important instrumental form of the Baroque period is the _______
The word _______ comes from the Latin word for competition, and accurately portrays the relationship between the soloist and orchestra
_______ is the name for a concerto in which the solo part is scored for a small group of musicians instead of an individual
Concerto Grosso
Baroque concertos are broken into ________ movements or sections, each with a distinct form
The first movement of a Baroque concerto is almost always in ________ form
_______ form pits the orchestra against the soloist, with the orchestra "returning" periodically to restate the main theme
True or False: In Ritornello Form, the "ritornello" means "return" and refers to the music or musical idea presented by the orchestra
_______ are smaller, self-contained musical pieces within a larger work
The first movement of Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto in D La Stravaganza is in _______ form
Another common form in the Baroque era is the _______, which uses successive uninterrupted repetitions of a musical idea with modifications each time to keep the listener interested
Variation Form
Variation form relies on a _______ or repeating bass line to help unify the form
Basso ostinato
The second movement of Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto in G La Stravaganza is in _______ form
Variation form
Antonio Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto in D La Stravaganza is a _______
Baroque Concerto
J.S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No 5 for Flute, Violin, Harpsichord, and Orchestra is an example of a _______
Baroque Concerto Grosso
A _______ is an improvised or improvisatory solo passage within a larger piece
When did J.S. Bach Die?
True of False: J.S. Bach, like many musicians of the time, learned his craft from his family
J.S. Bach was born into a musical family that generated more than _______ prominent musicians
True or False: J.S. Bach was seen as a great artist and master of composition
False, he was seen as a servant
When J.S. Bach tried to leave Weimar for a new position, what did his former employer do?
Threw him in jail
Bach had _______ children, all of whom were trained in music, and many of whom probably assisted him in his duties at St Thomas’ Church
A _______ is a polyphonic composition for a fixed number of instrumental lines or voices built on one principal theme
In addition to Concertos and Dance Suites, _______ was a prominent form of instrumental composition that involved strict imitative polyphony
List the three major kinds of instrumental compositions from the baroque period
Dance Suite
The first section of a fugue, called a _______, is where the "subject" is presented in strict polyphonic imitation in all voices
The one principal theme of a fugue is called a _______
Following the exposition section of a fugue, there are alternating _______ and _______
Episodes and Subject entries
In a fugue, a(n) _______ is a section where the subject is presented again clearly to help stabilize the piece
Subject entry
in a fugue, a(n) _______ is a section where short, transitional, and unstable entries of the subject appear to contrast with the more stable sections of the piece
Baroque instrumental composers composed sets of stylized dances and assembled them into collection called _______
Dance suites
True or False: Baroque Dance Suites were written for courtly balls where nobles would dance
True or False: There was no overall structure to a baroque dance suite. It was merely a collection of stylized dances
How were the moevements of a Baroque Dance Suite unified as a whole?
They were in the same key
A common form for a dance movement from a Baroque Dance suite is,
||: a :||: b :||
also known as _______
Binary Form
A Baroque dance suite usually begins with a special introductory piece called a ______
French Overture
A(n) _______ is a short piece of music which precedes a larger work and summarizes the motives and ideas
The French Overture became popular in dance suites because of it's use in which court?
France/ King Louis XIV
With short dances, baroque composers would group them into an ABA arrangment, commonly known as _______
Trio Form
In Trio form, the middles section of the piece earned the name "trio" because:
There were usually only three people playing
The Gavotte from J. S. Bach’s Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D has a _______ form
The Gavotte from J. S. Bach’s Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D is performed by a _______
Festive Baroque Orchestra
_______ is the most popular form of Baroque vocal music, and indeed the most important form of any music in the Baroque era
The principal type of Italian Baroque opera is something called _______, or serious opera
Opera Seria
Opera seria plots were loosely derived from _______ or _______
ancient history or mythology
True or False: Opera seria was designed to stir up intense emotions like passion, rage, grief, and triumph
Opera seria is dominated by solo singing (Arias) by _______ and _______ while tenors and basses played subordinate roles
Sopranos and mezzo-sopranos
Often times, male roles in Baroque opera seria were sung by a _______; a male singer who had submitted to castration as a young boy to preserve his young voice
The opera seria story was moved along by use of _______, which is a technique for delivering text in a heightened dramatic style
Recitative that is accompanied only by the continuo is called _______
Secco Recitative
Recitative that is accompanied by the orchestra is called _______
Accompanied Recitative
A(n) _______ is a solo piece for singer usually found in opera or oratorio
The standard form for an aria is _______, meaning "from the head"
Da Capo form
Da Capo form can be diagrammed using letters as _______
True or False: In da capo form, both the words and music of the first section of the aria (A) would be repeated after the second section of the aria (B), so the composer only needed to write two sections of music (A and B)
- The aria “La giustizia” from George Fridric Handel’s opera Julius Caesar is an example an aria in _______ form
Da Capo form
True or False: George Friderich Handel was born into a large musical family
Handel was born in Germany but found his greatest success in _______
London, England
True of False: Handel was a bad businessman, despite his success in opera seria
When opera started to lose its popularity in England, Handel invented a new opera-like genre based on Biblical stories called _______
The most famous of Handel's pieces is an oratorio called _______
The Messiah
Name two differences between opera seria and oratorio:
(any of the following)
-Biblical plot
-No staging or scenery
-No action, only implied action
-no costumes
How is the Messiah unlike a typical oratorio?
Messiah does not have characters acting out parts. Instead, it has anonymous narrators who relate the story of Jesus' life while singers “react” to the story
Second in importance to oratorio among baroque sacred-music genres is the _______
Church cantata
A _______ is a general name for a piece of medium length for voices and instruments
Many Lutheran cantatas feature Lutheran hymns called _______
An example of a _______ is No. 4, “Chist lag in Todesbanden” by JS Bach
Church Cantata
German churches took great pride in their organs, and composers for the German churches composed pieces called _______ which showed off the organ and organist by incorporating a chorale tune
Chorale Prelude
J.S. Bach's “Christ lag in Todesbanden” is a _______ based on the chorale of the same name
Chorale Prelude