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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Multiple Sclerosis (MS)?
Chronic progressive disease of the CNS, which impede transmission of nerve impulses to and from the brain.
How do the lesions (sclerosis) develop?
inflammation and destruction of the myelin of the CNS.
This demyelination occurs in random and disseinated areas of the CNS.
Plaque forms during repair attempts of the myelin.
Both the plaques and demyelinatin impede nerve impulse transmission to and from the brain.
What are the incidences of MS?
-Women are 2-3 X more likely to get MS than men.
-People who live in northern states more likely to get Ms
-White are at higher risk than African Am and Asian-Am
-200 person are DX weekly
-2.5 M worlwide; 300K-500K in the USA
What is the etiology of MS?
Theories include:
-Viral cause which trigger autoimmune reactions
-Disturbance of the immune system
What are the signs and symptoms?
Depends on what area of the CNS are affected, location of the lesions and stage of MS, include:
fatigue, vision problems, loss of bal, muscle incoordination, ataxic gait, dysarthria, tremors, stiffness, bladder problems, depression, abnormal sensation, pain, spasticity, sexual dysfunc.
What are the types of MS (aka stages of MS)?
1: Relapsing/Remitting (RRMS)
2:2ndry progressive(SPMS)
3:Progressive Relapsing (PRMS)
4:Primary progressive (PPMS)
Describe RRMS
Characterized by exacerbations and new symptoms and old ones resurface or worsen. In this stage there is relaps and remission. The relaps can last days/weeks/months. The remission can be slow or immediate. Most MS sufferers present in this stage: 20-30 yr olds
Describe SPMS
After yrs in RRMS, people move to SPMS. In this stage symptoms worsen gradually between relapses. There are relapses but begin to stop. No real recovery in this stage.
50% of people w/RRMS will move onto the SPMS.
Describe PRMS
This form of MS follows a progressive course from onset, punctuated by relapses. There is significant recovery immediately following a relapse but between relapses there is a gradual worsening of symptoms.
Describe PPMS
Gradual progression from onset with NO remission! However, there are periods of leveling off. Onset in the 30-40's. Disease activity in the SC vs Brain.
May travel to brain but less likely do brain damage as RRMS or SPMS may.
What is the Prognosis for MS?
No cure
Most have normal life expectancy
Few die of infectious complcaitons
Is sensory attacks "better" to endure than motor dysfunctions?
What are the medical tx?
-Exacerbations treated w/ corticosteroid
-Meds for pain, constipation, incontinance
-In chronic cases: cathedar us, nerve block and surgery to release contractures
"Good health habits, stress mgmnt, and rest" recommended
What are the precautions/contraindications?
-Avoid heat makes pt weak.
-Observe to assure pt can tolerate the modality.
-Better to treat in the a.m.-pt is better rested
-Progressive exercises not recommended due to weakness and fatigue
-Care when coordination problems exist.
What are the OT goals, TX, and AE?
-Maintain and increase strength, endurance, coordination, ADL status, ROM, mobility
-Prevent contractures, deformities & decubitus
-AE:button=hook, weighted utensils, writst cuff to deminsh tremors; writing devices; Splint to maintain ROM