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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In broad terms, what is the patho for multiple sclerosis?
Chronic inflammation, demyelination and scarring of CNS
How do ppl get multiple sclerosis?
Cause is unknown but related to viral infection, immunologic and genetic factors
What are some precipitating factors for multiple sclerosis?
- Infection
- Physical injury
- emotional stress
- excessive fatigue
- pregnancy
- poor state of health
What are the three general clinical manifestations?
- Vague symptoms over months or years
- Chronic, progressive deterioration of neurological function
- Remissions and exacerbations
What are some motor problems?
- Sensory
- Weakness ot paralysis of limbs, trunk, or head
- Diplopia
- Scanning speech
- Muscle spasticity
What are some sensory problems?
- Numbness, tingling
- Patchy blindness (scotoma)
- Blurred vision
- Vertigo
- Tinnitus, decreased hearing
- Chronic pain
What are some cerebellar problems?
- Nystagmus (involuntary eye movement)
- Ataxia (poor coordination)
- Dysarthria(problem with articulating)
- Dysphagia
What are some emotional problems?
- Anger
- Depression
- Euphoria
- Liable
What GI and GU problems will they have?
- Constipation
- Urinary Incontinence
What 3 things do they look at for dx of MS?
- History
- Clinical manifestations
- McDonald critieria
What is the McDonald critieria?
- Two events seperated in time and space
- MRI shows lesions
- CSF has high number of lumphocytes and monocytes
- Analysis of evoked potentials as a means of identifying a second attack
What type of meds are given for edema and inflammatory response in exacerbations?
Corticosteriods
What meds are given for paresthesia?
- Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
- tricyclic antidepressants
What meds are given for cerebellar ataxia?
- Propranolol (Inderal)
- Clonazepam (Klonopin)
What type of meds are given for urinary retention if pt has flaccid bladder?
Cholinergics
What type of meds are given for urinary frequency and urgency for spastic bladder?
Anticholinergic
Muscle relaxants are given for? examples?
- Spasticity
- Valium, Lioresal, Dantrium, Zanaflex
CNS stimulants are given for? examples?
- Relieves fatigue
- Cylert, Ritalin, Provigil
Why do you want to teach the patient to drink cranberry juice?
UTI protection
What is one of the main things to teach a patient with MS?
Decrease stress since it is one of the precipitating factors.
What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
A progressive neuro disorder that involves the loss of motor neurons
Where does ALS usually affect?
Limbs, trunk, speech, swallowing, respiration
What is the prognosis for ALS?
Death within 2-6 years after dx
What is the only drug approved for ALS?
Riluzole (Rilutek)
extends survival time
True or False
A patient with ALS still has their full cognition intact.
True
What do you need to watch for in ALS patients?
Suicide
Are ALS patients able to make their own decisions about care?
Yes b/c cognitivly they are all there