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65 Cards in this Set

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Modern English developed from the language of:
Angles
Saxons
Jutes
Anglo Saxon
Old English
Best known example of Old English is?
Beowulf
Modern English vocabulary is dominated by words derived from
Old English
(Father, woman, sun, moon, water, dog, do, be)
Normans spoke:
Anglo Norman

A german influenced dialect of French
Anglo Norman Gradually developed into:
Middle English
The best known example of middle english is:
Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
Words of Latin origin
agree appoint, opinion, security, chamber, entertain, mirror, restrain, oppose.
Words with military legal, or political meanings often have:
Norman roots.

Cavalry, bailiff, ordinance, county, jury, muster, legion, royal, and campaign.
The printing press was developed in:
The sixteenth century
Two major changes brought forth by the printing press were:
ready availability of books spread classical learning.

Widespread literacy led to greater standardization of spelling.
Words derived from the latin of the clergy include:
indicate, emphasis, item, legislator, translate, ultimate, and maximum.
Works in Early Modern English include
Shakespeare, John Donne and John Milton.
American english included:
Words from other languages:
Ranch, Canyon (spanish) Bayou, prairie(french) boss, cookie (dutch), okra, banjo(west african), possum ,squash (indigenous american)
Spoken American English is characterized by:
Regional differences
Three types of diction
Colloquial
Formal
Technical
Colloquial diction is:
The language used in everyday conversation and informal writing.
Formal diction is:
used in academic, business, and journalistic writing. Formal diction is characterized by more rigorous rules.
Technical diction:
employs specialized vocabularies and usages and is used in many sciences, medicine, and law.
Linguistics
The structure and use of language.
Phonetics
the properties of speech sounds.
Morphology
The structure of individual words
Syntax
The way words are ordered in statements
Semantics
The relationship of words to their meanings.
Nouns
persons, places, things, or ideas.
pronouns
take the place of nouns, but do not name specific things.
Verbs
express actions or states of being.
adjectives
modify nouns or pronouns.
adverbs
modify verbs adjectives or other adverbs.
conjunctions
link sentence elements
interjections
express strong feelings on their own without naming things or modifying other words.
Sentences are composed of:
Subjects and predicates
Subject
names the main thing or person in the sentence.
Predicate
names the subject's actions, relationships, or characteristics.
Sentences are also composed of
Phrases and clauses
Phrase
a word group that lacks either a subject or a predicate
Clauses contain
all the grammatical elements of a complete sentence.

Two kinds of clauses are dependent and independent
Independent clauses
can stand alone as sentences.
Dependent clause
cannot stand alone as a sentence.
Types of sentences:
Declarative
imperative
interrogative
subjunctive
Declarative sentence
make statements of fact or opinion.
Imperative sentence
expresses commands.
Interrogative sentence
ask questions.
Subjunctive sentence
express wishes, desires, doubts or suppositions.
Simple sentence
a single independent clause
Compound sentence
made of of two or more independent clauses.
Complex sentence
composed of an independent clause modified by one or more dependent clauses
Compound-complex sentence
two or more independent clauses modified by one or more dependent clauses.
The foundation for the literary tradition that has produced much of British and NorthAmerican literature.
Greek and Roman texts.
The Greek archaic period produced the works attributed to:
Homer(epics), Hesiod and Sappho (poetry)
Authors of the Classical (Hellenic 500-323bc)period
Sophicles, Aristophanes, Uripedes,Aeschylus, Plato, Aristotle and Heroditus.
Hellenistic Period
323-30 bc

Menander, Euclid
Early English Literature
Beowulf 800-1000ad
Medieval British Literature
Canterbury Tales 1300's
Early Modern British
1500's-1600's
Shakespeare
Ben Johnson
John Donne
Andrew Marvell
George Herbert
John Milton
Neoclassicism
1700' and 1800's

Alexander Pope
John Dryden
John Grey
Romanticism
1700's and 1800's

William Blake,(poet)
William Wordsworth(poet)
Samuel Taylor Coleridge(poet)
John Keats (poet)
Deniel Defoe (novelist)
Henry Fielding (novelist)
Jane Austen (novelist)
Marry Shelley (novelist)
Victorian and modernist periods
1800's and 1900's
Poets: Tennyson
Barrett
Browing
Hopkins
Hardy
Eliot
Thomas
Novelists:
George Eliot
Joseph Conrad
James Joyce
DH Lawrence
Virginia Wolfe
Genre
Distinctive type of literary text.
Genres:
Lyric poem
epic poem
Novel
Literary sketch
Personal essay
Tragic Drama
Comic drama
Poetry:
writing that uses meter, rhyme, symbolism and figurative language and is intended to inspire the imagination or provoke reflection
Epic poem
Lengthy. Celebrate heroic deeds, philosphical ideas, and historical events.
Lyric poem
Is short and expresses a poet's personal thoughts.
Ballads
narrative poems that were originally sung
Elegies
Commemorate the life of someone who has died.