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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 Forms of Fictional Genres
Novel & Short Story
Types of Fiction
Allegory, Fable, Folk Legend, Myth, Romance, SciFi, Modern Realist Fiction
Allegory
story w/char. representing virtues & vice, sybolic & literal meanings (Pilgrims)
FAble
short tale offering moral example (Aesop)
Folk Legend
narrative, historically factual w/fiction (Sleepy Hollow)
Myth
story univerally shared w/in culture to explain history/traditions (Zeus)
Romance
high imagination tale, conflict between heroes/villain/ monsters (Sir Gawain)
Modern Realist Fiction
real probs for real ppl, insightful
Types of Non-Fiction
Biography, Autobiography, Informational Books & Articles, News accts of Events
4 types of Autobiographies
thematic, religious, intellectual, fictionalized
Genres of Drama
tragedy, comedy, comic drama, melodrama, farce
Tragedy
prose/poetry, story of brave hero w/flaw that brings ruin (Oedipus/Arthur Miller)
Comedy
amuse & end happily, satire & parody (Midsummer's)
Comic Drama
serious & light elements
Melodrama
extreme drama: hero saves day from villain & wins heart of heroine. Music for emotions
Farce
extreme comedy w/physical humor, unlikely situations, & stereotypes (3 Stooges)
Genres of Poetry
lyric, concrete, narrative, dramatic, epic
lyric poetry
words to music
concrete poetry
appeals to senses w/visual approach (make shape w/words)
narrative poetry
poetry/prose, fict/non, features many genres
dramatic poetry
real aloud
epic poetry
historical basis, conflict of opposed nations/races (not personal)
Types of Lyric Poetry
sonnet, ballad,limerick, cinquain, haiku, villanelle
sonnet
fixed verse w/14 lines, 5 ft. iambics rhyming to prescribed theme. 1st 8 lines (octave) state problem, last 6 (sestet) resolve problem
ballad
told/sung in verse w/music
limerick
Ireland, short, humorous verse, nonsense. 5 lines
cinquain
5 line stanza, 2 syllables in 1st & last lines, and 4/6/8 in middle 3
Haiku
Japan. unrhymed, seventeen syllables, 3 lines, 5/7/5 syllables
villanelle
France. 2 rhymes, repeating 2 lines throughout
How to evaluate Poetry
1. pattern of sound & rhyme
2. visible shape it takes (reflect theme)
3. rhyme & free verse (alliteration)
FIGURATIVE LANG
figure of speech,
ALLITERATION—
repeating sounds
ALLUSION
like a symbol, implied reference to person/thing
BATHOS
ludicrous attempt to evoke pathos (sympathy)
CLIMAX
phrase/sentence in ascending oder
EUPHEMISM
substitute agreeable term for offensive one (passed away)
HYPERBOLE
exaggeration
IRONY
something opposite the literal meaning
MALAPROPISM
verbal blunder w/one wd. Replace a similar sound/difff meaning
METAPHOR
indirect compare 2 things
PARALLELISM
arrange ideas in phrases/sentence/parag to balance
Personification
human charac. To inanimate obj/animal
ONOMATOPEIA
vocal imitation (buzz)
SIMILE
direct comparison (use like/as
IMAGERY
word refers to sensory experience
SYMBOLISM
object/actions suggest other things (Mending Wall)
AMBIGUITY
open to interp.
RHYTHM & RHYME
recurrence of stresses @ = intervals (pattern)
New Criticism
text itself, no concern w/author or env.
Structuralism & Deconstruction
look w/o regard to external influences
Marxist Criticism
class conflict drive civilization, bourgeoisie ($) vs. proletariat (poor)
Feminist Criticism
informed & inspired by author’s gender & ideas about gender
Psychoanalytic Criticism
(Freudian) mind is 3 parts (id-urges, superego-polices, ego-both conflict)
Phonological Awareness
reader recognizes sound of spoken lang. "help sound out wds"
Root Words:
wds from which another is developed (bene=good=benefit)
Base Words
stand-alone linguistic unit cannot be broken down to smaller wds (retell—base is “tell”)
Prefix
beginning unit, can’t stand alone (ex, sub)
Suffix
added on to end, can’t stand alone (ing,ful, er)
Inflectional Endings
suffix impart new meaning to base (ette, es, ed)
Compound Words
2 + base wds connected to form new wd (bookkeeper)
Syntax
1. Sentence Completion
2. Sentence Structure--simple, compound, complex,
Rhetoric: Types of Appeal (3)
1. Ethos-credibility of speaker
2. Pathos-emotional appeal to listener
3. Logos-logic of argument
Modern Theories of Rhetoric (3)
1.Fact—ie informative speech
2.Value—convince audience a certain thing is gd/bad/moral/ immoral
3.Policy—call to action, argue something to be done/ improved/changed
Application of modern rhet. principles to produce desired results
1.Unity—all ideas relate to thesis
2.Coherence—relationship of ideas (trans. Words/phrases)
3.Emphasis—stronger arguments in areas of importance for significant ideas
5 steps of Rhetoric
Intro, narration, confirmation, refutation, summation
Methods of Oral Communication
debate, discussion, conversation
(interviews, speeches, listening, facilitating)
Descriptive Writing
centers on 1 person/place/object, sensory wds create mood/impression, chron. order
Narrative Writing
use incident/anecdote, Chronology, the 5 w’s, topic sentence, conclusion
Persuasive Writing
implies writers ability to direct actions of reader
Journalistic Writing
theoretically free of author bias, relay info
5 Processes of Writing
Prewriting, writing, revising, editing, publishing
Prewriting
ideas b4—brainstorm/journals/lists/questions
writing
first draft
revising
examine & make changes in sentences/wording/details/ideas (Enhance interest & ensure understanding)
editing
proofread draft for punctuation/errors
publishing
display work/read aloud
How to develop a Thesis
ID topic, state point of view on topic, summarize main pts you'll make in essay
Third Person
unseen narrator tells what happens (uses he/she/they)
First Person
see action thru eyes of writer (I)
Omniscient
knows all, greater involvement for reader
Hyperbole
exaggeration (could eat a horse)
Metonym
use object/idea closely ID’d w/other object to represent 2nd (hit the books = go study)
Synecdoche
word for part of something is used to mean whole (sail for boat)
Oxymoron
contradictory form of speech (jumbo shrimp
Logcial Fallacies
error in reasoning (ie: form general rule based on only 1 case)
3 Main Ways to Support Argument
experts, facts, personal experience
Homonym
spell & sound same, different meaning (Mean= unkind/intend)
Heteronym
spell same, sound different, different meaning (desert= abandon/arid area)
Capitonym
spell same, different when capital (polish vs. Polish)
Phonics
1 letter graphemes representing consonants or vowels & blend together to form words (sat/met)
Syllabication
break down into each unit of spoken language