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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
coxa valga
when the femoral head neck angle is more than 135 degrees
coxa vara
when the femoral head neck angle is less than 120 degrees
femoral anteverson
- when the angle of the neck with the head is greater than 15 degrees
- this person will walk with an intoeing gate
femoral retroversion
- when the angle of the neck with the head is less than 5 degrees
- this person will walk with an out-toeing gate
fractures of the proximal femur
- in elderly women
- may be intracapsular neck or extracapsuar intertrochanteric region
- either one makes the limb appear shortened and externally rotated
Trendelenburg sign
- weakness of gluteus medius and minimus
- sagging of the contralateral side when standing ont he affected side
external hip rotators
- gluteus maximus
- obturators
- gemelli
- piriformis
- quadratus femoris
internal hip rotators
- anterior gluteus medius
- tensor fascia lata
thigh abduction contractures
affected limb appears longer
thigh adduction contractures
affected limb appears shorter
how are the MCL and LCL oriented
- stretched most tightly in extension
- oppose lateral rotation
how is the ACL oriented?
- upward and backward, lateral
- taght in full extension, so they rotate tibia laterally
how is the PCL oriented?
- upward and forward, medial
- taght in full extension, so they rotate tibia laterally
besides hinge movement, what goes on with leg extension
- femur slides back
- lateral rotation (lateral condlye exhausts surface first), so tighening of collateral ligaments
besides hinge movement, what goes on with leg flextion
- its preceded by medial rotation by the popliteus
- relexes the stretched colateral ligaments
all about the anterior leg compartment
- dorsiflex ankle, extend toes
- via deep fibular nerve
- supplied by anterior tibial artery
all about the posterior leg compartment
- plantar flex ankle, flex toes, invert foot
- via tibial nerve
- supplied by posterior tibial artery
all about the lateral leg compartment
- eversion of the foot
- via superficial fibular nerve
- no artery proper to it
pes cavus
too tall arch
pes plaus
flat foot
femoral nerve
- L2-4, anterior to pelvis
- gets quads, sartorius
- cutaneous anterior thigh and medial leg
obturaor nerve
- L2-4, anteiror to pelvis
- gets adductors
- cutaneous medial thigh
superior gluteal nerve
- L4-5
- gets medius and minimus, tensor fascia lata
inferior gluteal nerve
- L5-S2
- maximus
sciatic nerve
- posterior thigh
- turns into tibial and fibular
what nerves supply the foot?
- medial plantar and lateral plantar
- from the tibial nerve
what nerve supplies the leg skin?
saphenous nerve, from the femoral nerve
what artery supplies the femoral head?
- retinacular arteries
- from the medial circumflex of the profunda femoris
where does the great saphenous vein drain
medial leg
where does the small saphenous vein drain
lateral, posteior leg
where in the leg are anastamoses not sufficient for an occlusion?
- around the knee joint
- bad if femoral or popliteal artery is occluded
antalgic limp
- from pain
- shortened stance phase on affected side
- if pain from hip joint (coxalgia), lurch of trunk toward painful side in stance
abductor lurch
- weakened medius
- trunk lurches toward weakened side to move the center of gravity
gluteus maximus lurch
- trunk lurches backwards at heal strike
- this is b/c it begins to contract at heal strike to slow forward motion
gait w/ paralyzed quad
- can walk b/c leg acts as pendulum to extend the knee before heel strike
- cant run or walk on rough surfaces
calcaneus gait
- gait w/ calf muscles paralyzed
- can't push off
- extension of hip by maximus and hamstring
gait w/ different limb lengths
- lowering of shoulder on the shorter side in stace
- shift in trunk to short side in stance
gluteus maximus lurch
- trunk lurches backwards at heal strike
- this is b/c it begins to contract at heal strike to slow forward motion
gait w/ paralyzed quad
- can walk b/c leg acts as pendulum to extend the knee before heel strike
- cant run or walk on rough surfaces
calcaneus gait
- gait w/ calf muscles paralyzed
- can't push off
- extension of hip by maximus and hamstring
gait w/ different limb lengths
- lowering of shoulder on the shorter side in stace
- shift in trunk to short side in stance