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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
for every 2 degrees of glenohumeral motion, there is 1 degree of what motion?
scapulothoracic motion
how do you find the glenohumeral joint for injections?
- coracoid process 1-2 fingers under scapula through deltoid
- GH joint is 1 lateral to the coracoid
suprascapular nerve
- gets supraspinatus and infraspinatus
subscapular nerve
- gets subscapular nerve
calcific tendinitis
- tears of the rotator cuff
- when the supraspinatus tendon is caught b/t humeral head and acromion
long thoracic nerve
- gets serratus anterior
- lesion is winging of scapula
what is greater in the shoulder, internal or external rotation?
internal rotation by lats, teres major, subscapularis, pec major
to what degree to clavicular joints rotate w/ arm abduction?
- AC, 20 degrees
- SC, 40 degrees
- this is for when the shoulder is up at 180 degrees
- the GH does 120 (so add the 40 and the 60)
whats in the spiral groove of the humerus?
radial nerve
what is the difference in motion b/t the brachialis and the biceps?
- brachialis flexes extended arm
- biceps flex the flexed arm
fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus
- upper fragment abducted and externally rotated by muscles on greater tubercle
- lower fragment adducted and internally rotated by the internal rotators
fracture of the humeral shaft
angulation and overriding may result from muscular pull
fracture of the middle and lower thirds of the humerus
associated w/ injuries of the encircling radial nerve
what connects the proximal radius and ulna?
annular ligament
what important structures are in the antecubital fossa
- biceps tendon
- brachial artery
- median nerve
- ulnar nerve
volkmann ischemia
- from a supracondylar fracture that lacerates the antecubital vessels
- 4 p's of pain, pallor,
pulselessness, and paresthesias
- can cause crippling contractures
Colles fracture
- distal inch of radius
- tends to mess with the radioulnar joint
wierd name flexors
- quadratus
- pronators
- palmaris longus
wierd name extensors
- suppinator
- brachioradialis
- anconeus
how is flexor digitorum profundus different from superficialis?
- not divided
- act less independently
- have more power
fracture of the radius b/t the suppinator and pronator
- proximal fragment is strongly supinated by the supinator and biceps
- the distal fragment is pronated by the pronators teres and quadratus
de Quervain disease
- the short thumb extensor lies with the abductor pollicis longus in a common sheath covered by ligaments that hold them against the styloid process of the radius
- Occasionally, the friction produced by movement between the sheath and the styloid
process leads to this stenosing tenosynovitis
trigger finger
- whenthere is tenosynovitis of the flexor tendon sheaths that leads to cicatricial stenosis of the sheath
- Associated proximal swelling and thickening of the tendons interfere with their movement in the
sheath, producing a sudden snapping or popping during flexion and extension and occasionally locking the
digit in a flexed or extended position
all about the hypothenar muscles
- abductor, flexor, and opponens digiti minimi, and the palmaris brevis
- innervated by the ulnar nerve
all about the thenar muscles
- abductor pollicis brevis the flexor pollicis brevis, and the opponens pollicis
- all innervated by the median nerve except the deep head of the flexor pollicis brevis, which is ulnar
lumbrical muscles vs. interossi
- lumbercals extend IPs
- interossi adduct to middle
- all innervated by the ulnar nerve except the 1st and 2nd lumbercles, which are median
swan neck deformity
- flexion of DIP
- hyperextension of PIP
- from flexor superficialis tendon descruction
boutonniere
- flexion of PIP
- hyperextension of DIP
- from extensor descruction
Erb paulsy
- lesion of 5th adn 6th roots of brachial plexus
- from widening of the head-shoulder interval at birth
- gets axillary, musculocutaneous, and suprascapular nerves
- arm cannot be raised
- elbow flexion weak
- If roots damaged above junction, paralysis of the rhomboids and serratus anterior -> weakness in scapula retraction and protraction
Injury to the lower roots (C8 and T1) or lower trunk of brachial plexus
- from forceful abduction of the shoulder
- weakness in intrinsic muscles of the hand as and long flexors and extensors
of the fingers
Injury to posterior cord of brachial plexus
- weakens elbow, wrist, and metacarpophalangeal joint extension (radial nerve)
- weakens shoulder abduction (axillary nerve)
Injury to lateral cord of brachial plexus
- impairs elbow flexion (musculocutaneous nerve)
- impairs wrist flexion (lateral root of median nerve)
Injury to medial cord of brachial plexus
combined median and ulnar nerve deficit
musculocutaneous nerve
- C5, C6
- coracobrachialis, biceps, and brachialis
- antebrachial cutaneous nerve
- lesion means weakness of
elbow flexion and supination and loss of sensation of lateral forearm
axillary nerve
- C5, C6
- deltoid and teres minor
- sensory for skin over deltoid
- lesion means weakness of shoulder abduction and external rotation
radial nerve
- C5-T1, largest and most frequently injured
- sensory to posterior arm
- triceps and extensors
- it divides at elbow
- deep goes to forarm extensors and skin
- superficial gets dorsal webspace skin and to middle finger and PIPs
- lesion is inability to extend writs or hand
median nerve
- C5, 6, 7, 8, and T1
- gets all the flexors that the ulnar doesn't get
- nothing in the arm
- sensory to thumb, radial 2 ½ fingers w/ palm
- lesion means weak
pronation, flexion and radial deviation w/ ape hand
ulnar nerve, minus lesions
- C8, T1
- gets flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus in forearm
- gets the whole ulnar hand for skin
- in hand, gets hypothenar muscles and adductor pollicis
Froment sign
- from lesion of ulnar nerve at wrist, so paralysis of all small muscles of hand and hypothenal muscles
- when you try to grasp a piece of paper b/t tumb and forfinger, compensating flexor pollicis longus makes the thumb IP flex
hand of benediction
- ulnar clawhand
- ulnar nerve lesion below mid-forearm
- 4th adn 5th fingers are hyperextended at MCPs by the long extensors, yet flexed at the IP's
ulnar nerve lesion above the midforearm
- no ulnar clawhand
- extrinsic muscles for IP flexion are also denervated
complete clawhand
- from low lesion of median and ulnar nerves
- MCPs extended and IP's flexed by still functional extrinsics
where can you ligate arteries in the arm?
- subclavian or axillary
arteries b/t thyrocervical
trunk and subscapular artery (anastomoses about scapula)
- brachial artery distal to
the inferior ulnar collateral artery (elbow)
- Either radial or ulnar artery in forearm (palmar and
carpal arches)