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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
To get salt
Often simple methods, e.g. solar evaporation
Freshwater obtaining methods
electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, ion-exchange resins
Sand and gravel
Roads, beaches, landfills, cement, concrete
ancient deposits of bones of marine animals. fertilizer production. big deposits in florida.
Phosphate (Phosphorite)
To make Phosphate Fertilizer, Phosphate ore is treated with
sulfuric acid
Phosphate makes the fertilizer ______ and the waste product______
Phosporic acid, calcium sulfate (phosphogypsum)
Leachate of phosphogypsum contains ______ and is __________ so cannot be returned to mines
uranium, radioactive
Sulfur is made into
sulfuric acid, the #1 industrial chemical
sulfur is extracted with
superheated steam (frasch process)
Sulfur found in
deposits in Louisiana and Texas, reserves in Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean
Coal is formed from
land plant remains
It begins as ______ and then under higher temperature/pressure you get what three harder coals?
lignite, bituminous, anthracite
why are the beds of coal under the sea
because sea-level rose
How is coal mined?
Through shafts, from land into offshore seams
manganese nodules contain what metals?
mainly manganese and iron, traces of cobalt, nickel, and copper.
Where are metallic sulfides found in the ocean?
hydrothermal vents
What metals make up metallic sulfides?
zinc, copper, chromium, molybdenum, silver, gold.
95% of the mineral wealth obtained from the sea is from..
Oil and natural gas!
continental shelves produce how much of the world's supply of oil/NG?
What is oil/NG formed from?
the organic remains of phytoplankton that grew 85-180 mYA
What kind of processes formed the oil/NG?
biochemical and geochemical
Where is oil found and where is natural gas found?
Oil is shallower and gas is deeper (bc formed at higher temp)
methane ices are...
methane trapped below 800m by pressure and low temperature
Methane is of growing importance because
it could be a good replacement of natural gas, much more available. Japan and India wanna tap dat shit
What kind of gas is methane and what may have its eruptions done in the past?
Greenhouse gas, affected past climates
Where are polysaccharides, used for marine biotechnology, found?
The cell wall of seaweed
What is agar (seaweed) used in?
research and clinical labs
what is carrageenan (seaweed) used as?
texturiser in ice cream, could be a replacement for fat
What does Alginate (seaweed) do?
Binds Ca and Sr (removes radioactive strontium from bones)
Chitin (polysaccharides also) used for
dialysis membranes
capsules for slow-release fertilizer/ pesticides
encapsulation of bacteria
What are thermozymes, how are they stored, what are they used for
enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbes

stored at room temperature

used in detergent and cleaning industry
What do Prostaglandins (from Gorgonian coral) do?
Stimulate labor and lowers blood pressure in humans
What transgenic fish have been developed and how were they altered?
Salmon, goldfish, and Tilapia- growth hormone gene, 4x size increase

Salmon- Antifreeze proteins from polar fish made them tolerant of cold
What marine luminescence genes from jellyfish (Aqueoria) are used/ what for?
Green Flourescent Protein, used to follow survival of organisms in soil
what marine luminescence genes from a marine bacterium (Vibrio) are used/ what for?
Lux genes, used to monitor levels of pollutants in soil
What tidal range is needed for Tidal Energy
At least 7m
There are enough Tidal energy sites to supply how much of the world's electricity?
What are some sites of Tidal energy
Cook INlet, Alaska
Passamaquody Bay, Maine
Brittany, France
What are some problems with Tidal Energy?
Dam systems, block estuary (migration and navigation problems)
Turbines kill fish
Turbines (tidal energy) work better if they run on...?
Both ebb and flood tides, double action system
How do the tidal flow generators work?
They are submerged lke wind generators, work in all directions. Water enters on flood tide through turbines, exits on ebb tide.
Why are artificial hollow island for tidal energy good, and where are some found?
No interference with navigation and fish movements
Irish Sea off Rhyl, N. Wales
Swansea, S. Wales
Wave energy: how does it work?
Offshore or shore-bound structures.
Water rushes in to a column, compresses air above the water to drive turbines. Water leaving pulling pulls air through turbines in opposite direction
How does Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion work?
Taps potential energy in the temp. difference between surface and deep waters
How does the closed system of OTEC work?
freon or NH3 alternately evaporated and condensed by warm and cold SW
how does the open system of OTEC work?
warm SW converted to vapor in a low-pressure, vacuum chamber.
Where is a Pilot Plant of OTEC?
Keohole Point, Hawaii