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55 Cards in this Set

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Prophase is...
when chromosomes being condensing and become visible
What is Prophase I?
Prophase I is when the homologous chromosomes pair up and crossing-over happens.
Metaphase I is...
when the pairs of homologous chromosomes are moved by spindle fibers to the center of the cell.
What's a Centromere?
A centromere is the two chromatids are attached by a protein disk at a point which is the centromere.
* Chomatids attached by....*
What are homologous chromosomes?
Homologous chromosomes are the two copies of each chromosome.
* Copies of ....*
What are Diploids?
A diploid is when a cell contains two homologues of each chromosome.
* When a cell contains....*
Inversion is when......
Sometimes the fragment reattaches to the original chromosome int he reverse orientation.
What is translocation?
Translocation is when the fragment may join a nonhomologous chromosome.
*when the fragment may join....*
Autosomes are...
when the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human somatic cells and 22 pairs are the same in males and females.
True or False:
Sex chromosomes are chromosomes that don't differ between males and females because they carry the genes that determine an individual's sex.
Sex chromosomes exist in what two forms?
Either as an X chromosome or as a shorter Y chromosome.
* XY*
What is a bacterium?
A single, prokaryotic cell.
Binary fission is a form of..
asexyual reproduction that produces identical offspring.
A cell cycle is the...
life of a eukaryotic cell traditionally diagrammed.
Cell Cycle
G1> S > G2 > M > C
Mitosis is..
the process by which the nucleus of a cell is divided into two nuclei which each have the same number and kinds of chromosomes.
Cytokinesis is...
When the cytoplasm divides during this process.
Interphase is..
when a eukaryotic cell spends most of it's life int he G1, S, and G2 phases.
Spindles help...
move chromosomes apart
Spindle fiber is...
made of microtubules, long hollow tubes of protein.
A kinetochore is..
when a second group of microtubules extend out from a region of the centromere of each chromosome.
Metaphase is...
when the chromosomes move to the center of the cell and line up along the equator or the middle.
Anaphase is...
When the two chromatids physically separate when the centromere divides.
Telophase is...
when the chromosomes uncoil and a new nuclear envelope forms and when the spindle fibers break down, disappear and mitosis is finished.
Meiosis is..
the mechanism that halves the number of chromosomes in cells which forms a cell division.
What are spores?
SPores arehaploid cells that later lead to the production of gametes.
Crossing-over is....
when the arms of the chromosomes exchange reciprocal segments of DNA in this process.
What is Anaphase I?
When the homologues seperate and the chromatids do not separate at the centromeres and each chromosome is stillc omposed of the two chromatids joined by a centromere.
* When homologues separate...*
Reduction division is...
also called as Meiosis I
Telophase I is...
when the individuals gather at each of the two poels and forms new cells
What is genetic recombination?
The formation of new combinations of genes.
*new combination of...*
What is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)?
A long, thin molecule that contains the information needed to direct a cell's activities to determine a cell's characteristics
* Molecule that contains.....*
What is a gene?
Segment of DNA that transmits information from parents to offspring.
* Part of DNA that.....*
What happens when cells prepare to divide?
The DNA molecule coils and twists into a dense structure called a chromosome
* twists into....*
What is a Chromosome?
A chromosome is a rod-shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and it's proteins coil tightly before cell division.
* Structure that is....*
What are Chromatids?
Chromatids are the two copies of each chromosome.
* Copy of....*
True or False
You receive one homologue of each chromosome from your mother and the other from your father.
Are all cells diploid?
What are gametes?
Gametes are when egg cells and sper cells are haploid.
* When egg cells and....*
What are haploids?
A haploid cell contains only one homologue of each chromosome.
* contains only one....*
What is a diploid zygote?
A diploid zygote is the fusion of two haploid gametes.
*fusion of two...*
What are zygotes?
Zygote is a fertilized egg cell the first cell of a new individual.
* a fertilized....*
What is Monosomy?
Monosomy is the condition when a diploid cell is missing a chromosome.
* When a diploid cell is...*
What does being a haploid ensure?
Being a haploid ensures that when an egg and a sperm fuse the resulting zygote contains the characteristic diploid number of chromosomes for that certain organism.
* the resulting......will contain characteristic ....*
How many chromosomes do human's have?
True or False:
A person doesn't need the characteristic number of chromosomes in his or her cells.
What is a trisomy?
Trisomy is the conditon in which a diploid cell has an extra chromosome.
* When a diploid cell has an...*
What is a Karyotype?
A karyotype is the collection of chromosomes found in an individual's cell.
* Collection of.....*
Down syndrome is when......???
When traits produced by having an extra copy of chromosome 21.
* extra copy of...*
What is nondisjunction?
An accident in chromosome separation.
* accident in....*
What is amniocentesis?
Amniocentesis is when a physician uses a needle and syringe to remove a small amount of the fluid from the amnion ( sac that surrounds the fetus).
*When physician uses a....*
What's a chorionic villi sampling?
When a physician analyzes a karyotype made using cells grown from a sample of the chrionic villi ( fingerlike extensions of the placenta that grow into the mother's uterus).
*When physician analyzes a.....*
What is mutation?
Changes in an orgainism's genetic material.
*changes in...*
True or False:
Deletion is when a fragment of a chromosome breaks off, it can be lsot whent the celld ivides, causing a mutation.
What is duplication (a mutation)?
A duplication is when the chromosome fragment attaches to it's homologous chromosome which then carries two copies of a certain set of genes.
*when the chromosome fragment attaches to...*
What is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)?
A long, thin molecule that determine's a cell's characteristics that contains the information needed to direct a cell's activities.
* a molecule that.....*