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70 Cards in this Set

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Advertising
any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea by an identified sponsor
Product advertisements
advertisements that focus on selling a good or service and which take three forms: (1) pioneering (or informational), (2) competitive (or persuasive), and (3) reminder
Institutional advertisements
are advertisements designed to build goodwill or an image for an organization rather than promote a specific good or service
Infomercials
program-length (30-minute) advertisements that take an educational approach to communication with potential customers
Pretests
tests conducted before an advertisement is placed in any medium to determine whether it communicates the intended message or to select among alternative versions of the advertisement
Posttests
tests conducted after an advertisement has been shown to the target audience to determine whether it accomplished its intended purpose
Consumer-oriented sales promotion
consists of sales tools used to support a company's advertising and personal selling directed to ultimate consumers. Also called consumer promotions
Product placement
a consumer sales promotion tool that uses a brand-name product in a movie, television show, video, or a commercial for another product
Trade oriented sales promotions
sales tools used to support a company
Cooperative advertising
consists of advertising programs by which a manufacturer pays a percentage of the retailer's local advertising expense for advertising the manufacturer's products
Publicity tools
methods of obtaining nonpersonal presentation of an organization, good, or service without direct cost. Examples include news releases, news conferences, and public service announcements
comparative advertising
advertising that shows on brand's strenghts relative to those of competitors
reminder advertisements
advertisements used to reinforce previous knowledge of a product; good for products that have achieved a position and are in the mature phase
advertising media
the means by which the message is communicated to the target audience
maximizing exposure and minimizing costs
two goals of selecting the right media
reach
the number of ppl or households exposed to an advertisement
frequency
the avg number of times a person in target audience is exposed to advertisement
reach x frequency
gross rating points (GRP) =
permission advertising
advertising where consumers agree to watch a commerical online in exchange for access to premium content and advertisers only pay for completed views
buyer turnover
how often new buyers enter market to buy product
forgetting rate
the speed with which buyers forget the brand if advertising is not seen
flighting (intermittent) schedule
periods of advertising are scheduled between periods of no advertising to reflect seasonal demand
pulse (burst) schedule
flighting schedule combined with a continuous schedule because of increases in demand, heavy periods of promotion or introduction of new product
Advocacy ads
Advertisements state the position of a company on an issue. It could be a company stating its position on smoking, or can be used when organizations make a request to a particular action or behavior, such as a request for blood donations.
Pioneering Institutional
are used for announcements about what a company is, what it can do, or where it is located.
Competitive Institutional
Advertisements promote the advantages of one product class over another and are used in markets where different product classes compete for the same buyers.
Reminder Institutional
bring the company's name to the attention of the target market again.
1) Advocacy
2) Pioneering
3) Competitive
4) Reminder
4 types of institutional advertisements
competitive advertising
Advertising that promotes a specific brand's features and benefits
1) pioneering (or informational),
2) competitive (or persuasive), and
3) reminder
product advertisements take three forms
1) Identifying the Target Audience
2) Specifying Advertising Objectives
3) Setting the Advertising Budget
4) Designing the Advertisement
5) Selecting the Right Media
6) Scheduling the Advertising:
Steps in Developing the Advertising Program
Designing the Advertisement
usually focuses on the key benefits of the product that are important to a prospective buyer in making trial and adoption decisions.
Fear Appeal
Suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of a product or service, or through a change in behavior. When using fear appeals, the advertiser must be sure that the appeal is strong enough to get the audience's attention and concern but not so strong that it will lead them to tune out the message.
Sex Appeal
Suggest' to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user
Humorous appeals
Imply either directly or subtly that the product is more fun or exciting that competitors offerings.
rich media
online advertisements that are interactive. and can contain, drop-down menus, built in games, or search engines.
wasted coverage

(advertising sports on lifetime)
the result of having people see the advertisement whom are outside of the targeted market.
billboards
A very effective medium for reminding consumers about your product in outdoor advertising.

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Transit advertising
is a medium that uses interior and exterior of buses, subway cars, and taxis.
Continuous (steady) schedule
When seasonal factors are not unimportant, advertising is run at a continuous or steady schedule throughout the year.
purchase frequency
the more frequently the product is purchased, the less repetition is required.
1) Portfolio Tests
2) Jury Tests.
3) Theater Tests
Types of pretests:
Theater Tests
Consumers are invited to view new television shows or movies in which test commercials are also shown. Viewers register their feelings about the advertisements either on handheld electronic recording devices used using the viewing or on questionnaires afterward.
Jury Tests
Involve showing the ad copy to a panel of consuers and having them rate how they liked it, how much it drew their attention, and how attractive they thought it was.
Portfolio Tests
Are used to test copy alternatives. The test ad is placed in a portfolio with several other ads and stories, and consumers are asked to read through the portfolio. Afterward, subjects are asked for their impressions of the ads on several evaluative scales, such as from -very informative- to - not very informative�.
The full-service agency
provides the most complete range of services, including market research, media selection, copy development, artwork, and production.
Limited-service agencies
specialize in one aspect of the advertising process such as providing creative services to develop the advertising copy or buying previously unpurchased media space.
In-house agencies
made up of the company�s own advertising staff may provide full services, or a limited range of services.
Aided Recall (Recognition-Readership)
After being shown an ad, respondents are asked whether their previous exposure to it was through reading, viewing, or listening.
Unaided Recall.
A question such as �what ads do your remember seeing yesterday?� is asked of respondents without any prompting to determine whether they saw or heard advertising messages.
Attitude Tests.
Respondents are asked questions to measure changes in their attitudes after an advertising campaign, such as whether they have a more favorable attitude toward the product advertised.
Inquiry Tests
Additional product information, product samples, or premiums are offered to an ad�s readers or viewers. Ads generating the most inquires are presumed to be most effective.
Sales Tests.
Involve studies such as controlled experiments and consumer purchase tests.
Rebates.
offers the return of money based on proof of purchase
Point-of-Purchase Displays
These products take the form of advertising signs, which sometimes actually hold or display the product and are often located in high traffic areas near the cash register or the end of an aisle.
Loyalty Programs
Are a sales promotion tool used to encourage and reward repeat purchases by acknowledging each purchase made by a consumer and offering a premium as purchases accumulate.
Sweepstakes.
These sales promotions require participants to submit some kind of entry but are purely games of chance requiring no analytical or creative effort by the consumer.
Contests
where consumers apply their skill or analytical or creative thinking to try to win a prize
Premiums
which consists of either merchandise offered free or merchandise offered at a significant savings over its retail price.
Deals
Are short-term price reductions, commonly used to increase trial among potential customers or retaliate against a competitor�s actions
Coupons
Are sales promotions that usually offer a discounted price to consumer, which encourages trial
Allowances and Discounts
An effective method for encouraging increased purchases by intermediaries
Training of Distributor's Salesforces
One of the many functions the intermediaries perform is customer contact and selling for the producers they represent. Both retailers and wholesalers employ and manage their own sales personnel. A manufacturer�s success often rests on the ability of the reseller�s salesforce to represent its product.
news conference
Representatives of the media are all invited to an informational meeting, and advance materials regarding the content are sent.
public service announcements
are free space or time donated by the media
news release
consisting of an announcement regarding changes in the company or the product line
merchandise allowance.
Reimbursing a retailer for extra in-store support or special featuring of the brand
case allowance
is a discount on each case ordered during a specific time period.
finance allowance
involves paying retailers for financial costs or financial losses associated with consumer sales promotions.
1) Types of Advertising
2) Developing an Ad program
3) Executing an Ad program
4) Assessing the Ad program
5) sales promotions
6) public relations
The 6 sections of chapter 16