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266 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
acitvation energy
the energy necessary to start a chemical reaction
adaptaion
a trait that makes a plant or an anmialbetter able to live in its environment
adult
the stage of an organism's life cycle in which it is fully grown and developed
aerobic
needing oxygen to live
air mass
a large body of air with certain temperature and moisture
amniocentesis
a test performed on pregnant women that detects certain birth disorders
amplitude
the height of a wave
antibiotic
a drug that fights bacteria
antibody
a protein made by white blood cells that attacks and kills invading germs
antigen
a foreign protein
aqueduct
a pipe or concrete channel that carries water from a reservoir
artery
a large blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to parts of the body
asphalt
a black substance that is used for paving roads
atmosphere
the air surrounding a planet
atom
the smallest particle of an element
bacteria
simple one-celled organisms
bar graph
a type of illustration that is used to compares sets of information
bark
the woody outer part of a plant stem
basal cell skin cancer
a type of slow-growing cancer that often appears on the hands or face as an open sore, reddish patch, mole, or scar
biome
a large region with a certain climate and certain living things
boiling
the rapid change of matter from a liquid to gas
bud
on a plant, area of growth that develpo into leaves and flowers
caption
a short passage that accompanies a photograph or illustration
carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle
a process in which plants use carbon dioxide given off by other living things and make oxygen, which is in turn used by the other living things
caterpillar
the wormlike stage in the life cycle of a butterfly or moth
cause
something that makes another thing happen
cell
the smallest unit of a living thing that can carry on life processes
cell membrane
a layer around the cell that controls what can enter or leave the cell
chart
an organized list that gives information in a form that is easy to read
chemical change
a change in the property of matters; a chemical change makes new substances
chemical equation
a statement that shows the rectants and products of a reaction
chemical formula
a group of symbols used to describe a compound(example: H2Ois the chemical formula for water
chemical reaction
a process in which elements or compounds are changed into other substances
chemical symbol
a kind of shorthand that chemists use in which one or two letters stand for an element
chemistry
the study of matter and its changes
cholesterol
a fatlike substances found in all animals
chromosome
a strand of genetic material, or DNA
circle graph
a graph used to show parts of a whole; also known as a pie chart
classifying
grouping things that are similar to help understand how they work
collision
the result of a moving objects striking another object
collid
a mixture of fine particles suspended in another substances, usually a liquid
combustion
the chemical change also known as burning, in which oxygen reacts with fuel to create light and heat
compare
to tell how things are alike
composting
the breaking down of organic material in the soil by aerobic bacteria, fungi, insects, and worms
compound
two or more elements combined chemically
compund machine
a machine made up of two or more simple machines
conclusion
a logical judgement based on facts
condensation
the change from a gas to a liquid
conglomerate
a type of sedimentary rock formed from large pebbles and stones
context
surrounding material; you can often figure out the meaning of an unknown word by looking at its context-the rest of the words in the sentence
continental polar air mass
a cold, dry air mass; for example, one that forms over Canada and the northern United States
continental shelf
the nearly flat area of the ocean bottom where the ocean meets the continent
continental slope
the sloping area that extends from the edge of the continental shelf to the ocean basin
continental tropical air mass
a warm, dry air mass; for example, one that forms over the southwestern United States
contrast
to tell how things are different
control group
in an experiment, a group that is similar to the experimental group except for one feature
convergence
the independent evolution of similar parts of unrelated organisms as adaptations to the environment(example: wings in bats,birds,and butterflies)
core
the center of something such as the Sun or earth
cystoplasm
a jellylike material that makes up most of a cell
density
the quanity of matter in a given unit of volume
details
small pieces of information that explain or support a main idea
diagram
a picture that explains what something looks like or how it works
diode
an electreonic device that allows current to flow in one direction only
distillation
the process for separating liquid mixtures
DNA
the genetic material found in chromosomes
dominant trait
a trait that can override a recessive trait
Down syndrome
a disorder caused by an extra chromosomes; childres born with Down syndrome are mildy to severely mentally retarded and may also have other health problems
Earth and space science
the study of Earth and the universe
echolocation
a system in which sound waves are sent out and their echoes interpreted to determine the direction and distance of objects; certain animals, such as dolphins and bats, use this
echosystem
an area in which living and nonliving things interact
effect
something that happens as a result of a cause
effort
the force that is being used to do work
egg
in animals, the female reproductive cell
egg mass
a clump of eggs
elastic
able to be stretched or compressed and then returned to the original shape
electrolysis
the process of using electricity to produce chemical changes; water can be split into hydrogen and oxygen using electrolysis
electromagnetic field(EM field)
the energy field surrounding and created by an electric current
electron
a particle in atoms that has a negative electrical charge
electronics
a branch of engineering concerned with devices that use electric current
element
a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary means, such as heating or crushing
embryo
an organism in the early stages of development; a developing baby from the third to eight week in mother's womb
EM field
see electromagnetic field
endothermic reaction
a process in which heat is taken in(example: photosynthesis)
energy
the ability of matter to do work
equator
the imaginary circle around Earth halfway between the North and South Poles
erode
to wear away
evaporation
the slow change of a liquid to a gas
evolution
the gradual change in a species over time
exothermic reaction
a process in which heat is produced (example:combustion)
experiment
a procedure used to test a hypothesis
experimental group
in an experiment, the group being tested
external recycling
the process in which individuals process waste materials so they can be made into new things
fact
a stement about something that actually happened or actually exists
fat
a substance that provides energy and building material for the body
fetal alcohol syndrome(FAS)
a group of birth defects that can occur when a pregnant womwan drinks alcohol
fetus
a developing baby from the third to ninth month
filtration
the process of seperating substances by passing a mixture through a screen or similar material
flower
in a plant, the reproductive organ that produces seeds and pollen
flu
influenza
force
a push or a pull
forecast
a prediction, as of the weather
fossil
the remains or imprint of a long-dead organism
fossil fuel
a fuel, such as coal,oil,or natural gas, that is formed from the remains of plants or animals that lived hundreds of millions of years ago
freefall
a condition in which an object is falling back to Earth
freezing
the change in matter from a liquid to a solid
frequency
the number of waves that pass a point in a certain amount of time
friction
a force between surfaces that tough
front
the leading edge of a moving air mass
fuel
a source of energy
fusion
see nuclear fusion
gas
a state of matter that does not have a definite size or shape and expands to fill its container
gear
a wheel with teeth; each gear turns on its own center
genetic screening
tests that can tell if certain diorders are likely to be inherited
genetics
the study of how traits are inherited
glacier
a mass of ice that forms when more snow falls than melts
global warming
a worldwide increase in average temperature
glossary
an alphabetical listing of important words and their definitions, located at the end of a text
gravity
the natural force of attraction between two objects(example: the pull of Earth on humans)
greenhouse effect
the warming of Earth caused by the absorption of infrared radiation into gases in the atmosphere
groundwater
water that is found underground(examples: springs and wells)
heading
the name of an article section that tells the topic or main idea of the text that follows
hereditary
capable of being passed from a parent to an offspring through a father's sperm or a mother's egg
heridity
the passing of traits from parents to their young
humidity
water vapor in the air
hydrocarbon
a compound made mostly of hydrogen and carbon
hypothesis
an explanation of how something work, based on many observations
igneous rock
rock formed when molten rock hardens
implied
not stated
inclined plane
a simple machine with a long, sloping surface that helps move an object(example: ramp)
inference
the use of information to figure out things that are not actually stated
influenza(flu)
an illness caused by a virus
infrared radiation
the energy Earth radiates back into the atmosphere
inherit
to acquire a trait or disease that is passed on from one's parents(exmples: hair color, Huntington's disease)
inner planets
the four planes closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus,Earth, and Mars
integrated circuit
tiny electronic components linked together to form a circuit
internal recycling
the process in which manufacturing business reuse their own waste materials
ion
an atom with a positive or negative electric charge
joint
the place where two or more bones come together
key
something that explains the symbols on a map or a graph
kindling temperature
the temperature at which a substance will burn
landfill
an area of open land that is filled with layers of garbage
language
a system of signs or sounds that refer to objects or ideas and that can be combined in different ways to produce different meanings
laser
a tool that produces a narrow, strong beam of light in which all the waves have the same frequency and wavelength and are in phase
leaf
the part of a plant that produces food from water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight
lever
a bar that turns on pivot
life cycle
the series of changes an animal goes through in its life
life science
the study of living things and how they affect one another
ligament
a strong band of tissue that connects bones at joints
light
a form of energy that travels in waves and makes vision possible
linegraph
a graph that shows how one thing changes as a second thing changes
liquid
a state of matter that takes up a definite amount of space but does not have a definite shape
main idea
the topic of a paragraph, passage, or diagram
mammal
an animal with a backbone, hair or fur, and milk-producing glands to feed its young
map
a drawing that shows places or features on Earth
maritime polar air mass
a cold, moist air mass; for example, one that forms over the northern Atlantic Ocean and northern Pacific Ocean
mechanical advantage
the number of times a machine multiplies your effort to do work
melanoma
a fast-growing skin cancer that may appear as oddly shaped blothes
melting
the change in matter from a solid to a liquid
metamorphic rock
rock formed in conditions of great heat and pressure
meterologist
a scientist who studies changes in Earth's atmosphere to forecast the weather
microgravity
apparent weightlessness experienced by objects that are falling or are in orbit around a body in space
microprocessor
an integrated circuit that functions as a computer's central processing unit
mitochondria
the part of cell that give the cell the energy it needs to grow and reproduce
mitosis
the process by which a celll's nucleus divides and therefore reproduces
mixture
a combination of two or more kinds of matter that can be seperated by physical means
molecule
the smallest particle of a compound
momentum
the property of a moving object that is a product of its mass and velocity
monosaturated fat
a type of fat found in some vegetable products
mutation
a change in gene
mutualism
a relationship in which two species help each other
natural resources
a natural material or space that humans need and use
natural selection
the survival of organisms best suited to their environment
neutron
a particle found in the nucleus of an atom that has no electrical charge
nitrate
a substance made by soil-dwelling bacteria using nitrogen from the air
nucleus
in life science, a cell's control center, which contains genetic material; in chemistry and physics, the protons and neutrons forming the core of an atom(plural:nuclei)
observation
the act of watching or using other senses to gather information and learn about something
ocean basin
the bottom of the sea
opinion
a statement that expresses what a person or group of people think, feel or believe about a fact
ore
a rock ar earth from which minerals are extracted
osteoporosis
a condition of brittle bones common to older people, especially women
outer planets
the five planets farthest from the sun:Jupiter, Saturn,Uranus,Neptune, and Pluto
oxidation
the process in which a substance reacts with oxygen, causing the formation of new compound called an oxide
overtone
a frequency of sound that is an exact multiple of another frequency produced at the same time
ozone
a form of oxygen
paleontologist
a scientist who studies ancient forms of life
parapharse
to restate information in a different way that keeps the original meaning
parasite
an organism that lives on or in another organism and harms it
photosynthesis
the process by which plants use carbon dioxide, energy from sunlight, and water to make food
PH scale
a measurement from 0 to 14 of the strength of an acid or a base
physical change
a change in the appearence of matter without a change in its properties(example: the dissolving of sugar in water)
physics
the study of energy and forces and their effect on matter
pitch
the perceived frequency of a sound
pivot
the point around which an object turns
placenta
a structure that attaches the embryo/fetus to the uterus and allows substances to pass between the embryp/fetus and mother
plaque
deposits of cholesterol on the inside walls of arteries
pneumonia
an infection of the lungs caused by viruses or bacteria
pollute
to make dirty or contaminate
polyunsaturated fat
a type of fat found in some vegetable foods and fish
precipitation
water falling from the atmosphere in the form of rain,snow, or sleet
prediction
a guess about what may happen
printed circuit board
a board to which electronic components that form circuits are attached
process diagram
a type of drawing that shows steps in a process, often with arrows showing how one step leads to another
product
a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
proton
a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
punnett square
a diagram used to show all possible combinations of a trait among offspring of two parents
pupa
the nonfeeding stage in the life cycle of some insects when their adult tissues are formed
pure tone
a sound made up of a single frequency
radiant energy
energy that exists in the form of waves, such as light waves or radio waves
raw material
an unprocessed natural material or other material used to make something new
reactant
a substance that reacts in a chemical reaction
recessive trait
a trait that will not appear if it is paired with a dominant trait
recycle
to collect and process waste materials so they can be used again
renewable resource
a resource that does not get used up(example:water)
reservoir
a lske created by a dam
resistance
a force that must be overcome to do work
resonance
the process in which a vibrating object causes another object to vibrate at the same frequency
resource
a material that people need from Earth
respiration
the process by which living things take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide to obtain energy
rhinovirus
a virus that causes certain types of colds
ribosome
a part of cell that makes the proteins the cell needs in order to grow
root
the part of plant that holds it in the ground and absorbd water and nutrients from the soil
saturated fat
a type of fat that is solid at room temperature
scan
to look over something quickly to find details
scientific methods
organized ways of solving problems; the process scientists use for getting information and testing ideas
sedimentary rock
rock formed when particles are deposited and then harden over time
sequence
the order in which things happen
silicon
the most common element in Earth's crust
simple machine
a device to do work(example:lever)
skim
to look over something quickly to get the main ideas
software
instructions that tell a computer how perform a task
solar cell
a device that converts sunlight into electricity
solar system
a sun and the objects that revolve around it, such as planets and their moons
solid
a state of matter that has a definite shape and takes up a definite amount of space
solubility
the amount of a solute that will dissolve in a given temperture and pressure
solute
the substance in a solution that is present in the smaller amount
solution
a type of mixture in which the ingredients are distributed evenly throughout
solvent
the substance in a solution that is present in the greater amount
sound
a sensation caused by vibrations and perceived by hearing
sound waves
vibrations trasmitted through substances in waves with frequencies that can be heard
space probe
unmanned spacecraft used for the exploration of space
spectrometer
a device used to analyze what things are made of
species
a group of organisms with similar characteristics that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
sprain
a joint injury in which the ligaments are stretched or torn
squamous cell skin cancer
a type of cancer that looks like raised, pink spots or growths that may be open in the center
stationary front
the zone between two air masses, caused when the masses stop moving
stem
the part of a plant that provides support and transports subatances
substance
matter that is of one particle type
summarize
to condense or shorten a larger amount of information into a few sentences
table
a type of chart that organizes information in rows and columns
timbre
the quality of a sound, which depends on the number and strength of overtones
timeline
an illustration that shows when a series of events took place and the order in which they occurred
topic sentence
the sentence that contains the main idea in a paragraph
trait
an inherited characteristic such as hair color or blood type
transistor
an electronic device used to amplify, detect, or switch electric current
tropical rain forest
dense forest found near the equator where the climate is hot and wet
ultraviolet light
a type of light with wavelengths too short to be visible to the human eye; also known as balck light
ultraviolet rays
a tyupe of harmful enery in sunlight
uterus
a woman's womb, in which an unborn baby develops
vaccination
an injected dose of dead or weakened disease-causing agent; the body reacts to vaccination by forming antibodies to fight the disease
virus
a tiny particle of genetic material with a protein covering
water cycle
the circulation of water on Earth through evaporation from the surface into the atmosphere and back to the surface as precipitation
wavelength
the diatance from the top of one wave to the top of the next wave
weather map
a map showing where cold, warm, and stationary fronts are, as well as areas of high and low pressure
wheel and axle
a simple machine composed of two objects that turn in a circular motion on the same center, multiplying both force and speed
work
the process of using force to cause an object to move
zygote
a fertilized egg resulting when the sperm from the father joins with the egg produced by the mother