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132 Cards in this Set

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What is Global Village?
A concept in which telecommunications and transportation technologies have essentially reduced time and distance effects to produce a single worldwide community. (ex: makes cars in Brazil, Misitsubishi makes cars in Bloomington-Normal)
What are Mulitinational Corporations (MNCs)?
Maintain significant operations in two or more countries simultaneously but are based in one home country. (ex: Gillette, Coca-Cola, AFLAC)
Alvin Toffler's 3 Waves of Social Change and Technology:
1) Agriculture
2) Industrialization
3) Information
What are Knowledge Workers?
Individuals whose jobs are designed around the aquisition and application of information. (they make up 1/3 of current workforce.)
What is Technology?
Any equipment, tools, or operating methods designed to make work more efficient.
How does Technology affect HRM practices? (9 areas)
1)Recruiting-internet job postings, electronic resume
2)Training & Development-Training Media (Software)
3)Ethics & Employee Rights-Surveillance Software
4)Motivating Knowledge Workers-More internet distractions, loss in work productivity
5)Paying Employees Market Value-Stock options can demotivate employees when conditions turn negative
6)Communications-Virtual Meetings
7)Decentralized Work Sites-How can you ensure appropriate quality and on-time completion
8)Skill Levels-Job skill requirements increase
9)A Legal Concern-Harassment, bias, discrimination, and offensive sexual behavior abuses via e-mail.
What is Workforce Diversity?
the varied personal characteristics that make the workforce heterogeneous. These characteristics include: sex, race, sexual preference, dissabled, and age.
What does Culture include?
Language, religion, generation, education, national origin, values, beliefs
What is Work/Life Balance?
Organizations need to increase their concern for work/life balance or they will find it increasingly harder to retain capable and motivated employees.
What are Baby Boomers?
Individuals born between 1946 and 1965. (U.S. Labor Shortage due to Baby Boomers)
What is Downsizing?
An activity in an organization aimed at creating greater efficiency by eliminating certain jobs.
What is Rightsizing?
Linking employee needs to organizational goals.
What is Outsourcing?
Sending work "outside" the organization to be done by individuals that employeed full time with the organization.
What is a Contingent Workforce?
The part-time, temporary, and contract workers used by organizations to fill peak staffing needs or perform work not done by core employees. (Doesn't include: undocumented)
What are core employees?
An organization's full-time employee population.
When is it more effective to hired in the contingent workers?
For seasonal surges because the organization saves money on benefits.
What is Quality Management?
Organizational commitment to continuous process of improvement that expands the definition of customer to include everyone involved in the organization.
What is Continuous Improvement?
Organizational commitment to constantly improving quality of products or services.
What is Kaizen?
The Japanese term for an organization's commitment to continuous improvement.
What is Work Process Engineering?
Radical, quantum change in an organization.
(ex: outsourcing, changing management style, new means of production)
What does effective employee involvement require?
Good Leadership & Supportive Management
What does it take to empower employees?
Extensive training in all aspects of the job.
What are Ethics?
A set of rules or principles that defines right and wrong conduct.
What is a Code of Ethics?
A formal document that states an orhanization's primary values and ethical rules it expects organizational members to follow.
What are the 3 views of Ethics?
1) Utilitarian View
2) Rights View
3) Theory of Justice View
What is Management?
The process of efficiently completing activities with and through other people.
What is Planning?
A management function focusing on setting organizational goals and objectives.
What is Organizing?
A management function that deals with determining what jobs are to be done, by whom, where decisions are to be made, and how to group employees.
What is Leading?
Management function concerned with directing the work of others.
What is controlling?
Management function concerned with monitoring activities to ensure goals are met.
What 2 ways are HRM viewed in?
1) HRM is a staff or support function in the organization
2) HRM is a function of every manager's job, not just those who work in HR
What are the 4 basic functions of HRM?
1) Staffing
2) Training and Development
3) Motivation
4) Maintenance
What does Staffing consist of?
-Strategic human resource planning
-Recruiting
-Selection
What does Training and Development consist of?
-Orientation
-Employee Training
-Employee Development
-Career Development
What does Motivation consist of?
-Motivation Theories and Job Designs
-Performance Appraisals
-Rewards and Compensation
-Employee Benefits
What does Maintenance consist of?
-Safety and Health
-Communications
-Employee Relations
What are the external influences of HRM?
-Labor Unions (Labor Relations)
-Management Practices
-Governmental Legislation
-Globalization
What is the Dynamic Environment?
Globalization, technology, workforce, diversity, changing skill requirements, continuous improvement, work process engineering, decentralized works sites, teams, employee involvement, and ethics
What are Labor Unions?
They assist workers in dealing with the management of an organization, such as securing wages, hours, and other terms of conditions of employment.
What is the Grievance Procedure?
A specified process for resolving differences between workers and management.
What is Management Thought?
Early theories of management that promoted today's HRM operations.
Who are the 4 forerunners of HRM ?
1) Frederick Taylor-Scientific management
2) Hugo Munsterberg-testing, training, performance evaluations, job efficient
3) Mary Parker Follet-people-oriented organization
4) Elton Mayo-Hawthrone Studies
What is Scientific Management?
A set of principles designed to enhance worker productivity.
What are the Hawthrone Studies?
A series of studies that provided new insights into group behavior. Western Electric researchers found informal work groups had a significant effect on worker performance.
What are Staffing Functions?
Activities in HRM concerned with seeking and hiring qualified employees.
What are the 2 goals that HR specialists should attempt to achieve?
1) Obtain an adequate pool of applicants, thereby giving managers more choices.
2) Provide enough info about the job to head off unqualified applicants.
What is the Training and Development function?
Activities in HRM concerned with assisting employees to develop up-to-date skills. knowledge, and abilities.
What is Training and Development?
The section on an organization is often rresponsible for helping employees maximize their potential. Their focus is to enhance employees' personal qualities that lead to greater organizational productivity.
What is Compensation and Benefits?
It is dealing with the most objective areas of a subjective field. It is concerned with paying employees and administering their benefits package.
What is the Employee Relations Function?
Activities in HRM concerned with effective communications among organizational members.
What is the difference between Employee Relations and Labor Relations?
They are similar however Labor Relations deals with Labor Unions.
What do Employee Relations Specialists do?
Ensure that policies and procedures are enforced properly, and permit a wronged employee forum to obtain relief.
What are HRM Communications Programs?
They are Designed to keep employees abreast of what is happening in the organization and knowledge of the policies & procedures affecting them.
What are the 5 fundamental elements of effective HRM communications program?
1) Top Management Commitment
2) Effective Upward Communications
3) Determining What to Communicate
4) Allowing for Feedback
5) Information Sources
What is Top Management Commitment?
Communication flows both up & down.
What is Effective Upward Communication?
Info must filter up company.
What does it mean "Determining what to Communicate"?
Employees need to know pertinent information including: Strategic goals, sales/service/production outcomes, new prodcut or service lines, HR policy changes.
What does it mean "Allowing for Feedback"?
Word of mouth, employee surveys, suggestion box, audit program
What is Information Sources, in the Effective HRM Communications Program sense?
Employees Trained Properly
What are Shared Services?
Sharing HRM activities among geographically dispersed divisions.
Who is an Owner?
Runs the business.
Who is an Entrepreneur?
They often handle HRM activities.
Who is the HR Generalist?
Handles all of the HR activities.
What is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act?
States how public companies are to handle and report their financial picture.
Why is HRM important to an organization?
-Federal & State Employment legislation has placed new requirements on employers
-Jobs have become more technical and more skilled
-Traditional boundaries have become blurred with the advert of such things as project teams and telecommuting.
-Global competition has increased demands for productivity
In the staff meeting of the Vice-President of Human Resources for a large corporation, a report is given on performance improvements in three production areas following an improvement program. The primary management function emphasized is:
A) Planning
B) Motivating
C) Leading
D) Controlling
E) Delegating
D) Controlling
Which of the following statements is true about the EEOA?
A) It conducted the initial research for the 1997 ADA
B) It provides a collection mechanism for criminal penalty assessments
C) It provided a series of amendments to Title IX
D) It gave the EEOC power to file civil suits
E) It was the first employment discrimination law in the United States
D) It gave the EEOC power to file civil suits.
What is the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
Federal law that prohibited discrimination based on race.
What is the Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
What is the Equal Pay Act of 1963?
Provides equal pay for equal work, regardless of sex
What is the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967?
Prohibits discrimination against 40 years or older in employment.
What is the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972?
Stregthen enforcement powers of EEOC and extend coverage of the Act to government employees, higher education institutions, and other selected groups.
What is the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978?
Prohibits discrimination against women because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.
What is the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990?
Prohibits discrimination in employment against persons with physically or mental disabilities or the chronically ill.
What is the Civil Rights Act of 1991?
Provides for compensatory and punitive damages and jury trials in cases involving intentional discrimination. Covers U.S. citizens working for American companies overseas.
What is the Uniformed Service Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994?
Grants employment Rights to individuals who enter the military. Employers cannot discriminate on basis of military obligation in the areas of hiring, job retension, and advancement.
What is the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973?
Prohibits discrimination against handicapped individuals; requires development of Affirmitive Action Plans.
What Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance of 1974?
Prohibits employment discrimination against Vietnam era Veterans; mandates affirmitive action to employ and advance disabled and qualified veterans.
What are the Executive Orders 11478 and 11375 (of 1965)?
Prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin,; requires development of Affirmative Action plans; Established the OFCCP.
What is the Executive Order 11478 (of 1969)?
Requires Federal Government to ensure that all personnel actions regarding employment be free from discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, and national origin
What is the Family Medical Leave Act (1993)?
Employees allowed up to 12 weeks of unpaid medical leave each year to care for family members or own medical reasons. (required by Federal Government to employers)
What are the 4 EEO Laws?
-Statutory Laws
-Common Laws
-Administrative Laws
-Executive Laws
What are Statutory Laws?
Passed by legislative bodies.
What are Common Laws?
Precedent set by the outcome of court cases.
What are Administrative Laws?
Regulations set by governmental agencies.
What are Executive Orders?
President signs
The Reality of EEO Laws:
-The legal system has its basis on politics
-Laws generally passed as a result of political pressure
-Often laws are interpreted differently over time or in varying circumstances
-Passage of a law and enforcing the law are not necessarily congruent.
What is the Bakke Case?
Medical School UC Davis, let others in with lower credentials, because he was a white male. (1st Reverse Discrimination Cases)
Ruling: The school could not set aside those seats for doing so resulted in "favoring one race over another"
What is the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation vs. Green case?
Led to 4 part test to determine if discrimination has occured:
1) The individual is a member of a protected group
2) The individual applied for a job which he/she was qualified
3) The individual was rejected
4) The enterprise after rejecting this applicant, continued to seek other applicants with similar qualifications.

(Adverse Impact-Disparate Treatment)
What is the Griggs vs. Duke Power Company?
Landmark Supreme Court decision stating that tests must fairly measure the knowledge or skills required for a job. He did not get the job because he did not have a High School Diploma and that was not related to the job)
Now there has to be a validy of tests
What is Title IX?
How much universities spend on both men & women sports.
What is Title VII?
The most Prominent piece of legislation regarding HRM, it states the illegality of discriminating against individuals based on race, religion, color, sex, or national origin.
What is the Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOA)?
Granted enforcement powers to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
What is the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)?
The arm of the federal government empowered to handle discrimination in employment cases.
What is Affirmative Action?
A practice in organizations that goes beyond discontinuance of discriminatory practices to include actively seeking, hiring, and promoting minority group members and women.
What are the 4 primary reasons for Affirmative Action Plans?
1) 1972 premise that white males made up the majority of workers in our companies.
2) U.S. companies were growning and could accomodate more workers.
3) Minorities should be hired to correct past prejudice that kept them out.
4) "Legal and social coercion [were] necessary to bring about the change"
What is Adverse (disparate) impact?
A consequence of an employment practice that results in a greater rejection rate for a minority group than for the majority group in occupation.
What is Adverse (disparate) treatment?
An employment situation where protected group members recieve treatment different from other employees in matters such as performance evaluations and promotions.
What is considered Reasonable Accomodations?
Providing the necessary technology to enable affected individuals to do a job.
What is the 4/5ths rule?
A rough indicator of discrimination this rule requires that the number of minority members a company hires must equal at least 80 percent of the majority members in the population hired.
What is the glass ceiling?
The invisible barrier that blocks females and minorities from ascending into upper levels of an organization.
What is sexual harassment?
Anything of a sexual nature that creates a condition of employment, an employment consequence, or a hostile or offensive environment.
What are the 2 types of sexual harassment?
1) Quid Pro Quo ("this for that" in Latin)
2) Hostile Environment
What is comparable worth?
Equal pay for jobs similar in skills, responsibility, working conditions, and effort.
What is the Privacy Act of 1974?
Requires federal government agencies to make available information in an individuals' personnel file.
What is Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1971?
Requires an employer to notify job canidates of its intent to check into their credit.
What is the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988?
Requires specific government-related groups to ensure that their workplace is drug-free.
What is the Polygraph Protection Act of 1988?
Prohibits the use of lie detectors in screening all job applicants.
What is the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act of 1988?
Specifies for employers notification requirements when closing down a plant or laying off a large number of workers.
What is Drug Testing?
the Process of testing applicants/employees to determine if they are using illict substances.
What is the Honesty Test?
A specialized question-and-answer test designed to assess one's honesty.
What is whistle-blowing?
A situation in which an employee notifies authorities of wrongdoing in an organization.
What is employee monitoring?
An activity whereby the company keeps informed of its employees' activities.
What is workplace romance?
A personal relationship that develops at work.
What is employment-at-will doctrine?
Nineteenth-century common law that permitted employers to discipline or discharge employees at their discretion.
What is implied employment contract?
Any organizational guarntee or promise about job security.
What is discipline?
A condition in the organization when employees conduct themselves in accordance with the organization's rules and standards of acceptable behavior.
What is the hot-stove rule?
Discipline, like the consequences of touching a hot stove, should be immediate, provide ample warning, be consistent, and be impersonal.
What are the 4 steps of the Discipline Process?
1) Written Verbal Warning
2) Written Warning
3) Suspension
4) Dismissal
What is Workplace Spirtuality?
The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of an organizational community.
What is employee counseling?
A process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems.
What is an employee handbook?
A booklet describing important aspects of employment an employee needs to know.
What is a complaint procedure?
A formalized procedure in an organization through which an employee seeks to resolve a work problem.
What is a suggestion program?
A process that allows employees to tell management how they percieve the organization is doing.
What are the exceptions to Employment-at-Will?
-Contractual Relationship
-Statutory Considerations
-Public Policy Violation
-Implied Employment Contract
-Breach of Good Faith
What are the four major components of management?
1) Planning
2) Organizing
3) Leading
4) Controlling
What are the 7 factors that help analyze a discipline problem?
1) Seriousness of the Problem
2) Duration of the Problem
3) Frequency and Nature of the Problem
4) Extenuating Factors
5) Degree of Socialization
6) History of the Organization's Discipline Practices
7) Management Backing
What are the 3 Disiplinary Guidelines?
1) Make Disciplinary Action Corrective Rather Than Punitive
2) Make Disciplinary Action Progressive
3) Follow the "Hot-Stove" Rule
What are the 3 Supreme Court cases that deal with the EEo laws?
1) Bakke Case
2) McDonnell-Douglas Corpartion vs. Green
3) Griggs vs. Duke Power Company
What is the purpose of honesty tests in the selection process?
Written tests to get applicants to reveal information about their integrity. (used to predict theft and drug use)
Who is considered to be an employee?
-The employee receives extensive instruction on how to do the work; such as where and when it is done, what tools to use, where to purchase supplies, and what assistants one may use in the work. (Behavioral)
-The employee receives training on required procedures and methods the organization uses. (Behavioral)
-The employee receives benefit such as insurance, pension, or paid leave. (Relationship of the Parties)
-Implications for HRM:
~Employer must withhold income tax and the employer's portion of Social Security and Medicare Taxes.
~Employer must pay unemployment taxes on an employee's wages.
Who is considered to be an Independent Contractor?
-An individual schedules his or her own work schedule and receives little to no instruction on how the work is done. (Behavioral)
-One does not receive reimbursement for some or all business expenses. (Financial)
-An individual can realize a profit or loss from his or her work. (Financial)
-One is not eligible for any employee benefits from the organizations. (Relationship of the Parties)
-Implications for HRM:
~Employer must give independent contractors a form 1099-MISC reporting what monies have been paid to the individual.
~Employer should have a written document indicating that the individual is an independent contractor and what is expected by both parties.