Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/101

Click to flip

101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What two substances first cause vasodilation and where do they act first?
1. NO and Histamine
2. Arterioles
What are the six ways endothelium becomes leaky?
1. Gaps in Venules
2. Vascular Injury
3. Leukocyte mediated injury
4. Transcytosis
5. New Vessel Formation
6. Delayed prolonged leakage
What is the immediate transient response and what four things contribute to it?
1. Leakage due to gaps in venules
2. Bardykinin, Histamine, Nueropeptide P and leuokotrines
What causes gaps in venules in about 4-6h after injury(3).
1. IL-1
2. TNF
3. INF-Gamma
What is the immediate sustained response?
Leakage after vessel injury
Endothelial cell detachment is often associated with what(2)?
1. Platelet aggregation
2. Thrombis
What causes the injuries in leukocyte mediated injury(2)?
1. ROI
2. Lysosomal enzymes
Leukocyte mediated injury is restricted to what areas?
Vascular sites (pulmonary and glomerular capillaries)
What is the organelle in transcytosis? What factor does it respond to?
1. Vesiculovacuolar organelle
2. VEGF and maybe histamine
New vessels have a high concentration of what?
Vascular mediator receptors
What causes the margination of leukocytes?
Stasis
What is called when a vessel wall starts to become covered in leukocytes?
Pavementing
What are the four classes of adhesion receptors?
1. Selectins
2. Immunoglobin family
3. Integrins
4. Mucin-like glycoproteins
What are the two Beta-2 integrins? The one Beta-1?
1. LFA-1 and Mac-1
2. VLA-4
Mucin-like glycoproteins bind to what leukocyte adhesion molecule?
CD44
What causes P-Selectins to migrate to the surface of the endothelium(3)?
1. PAF
2. Histamine
3. Thrombin
In regards to the activation of adhesion molecules for the initiation of inflammation, what causes CAMs to be expressed on post-capillary venules(2)?
1. IL-1
2. TNF
What causes the expression of VCAM and ICAM on the surface of the endothelium(2)?
1. IL-1
2. TNF
What causes the integrins VLA-4 and LFA-1 to change to a high affinity state?
Chemokines binding to heparan sulfate GAGs.
WHat is one homophilic molecule that helps in the process of diapedesis?
PECAM or CD31
Where does diapedesis mainly occur?
The venules
What surface molecule is used in the retention of leukocytes?
CD44
What enzyme is lacking in people with LAD-2?
Fucosyl Transferase
What are three examples of endogenous chemokines?
1. Complement - 5a
2. LTB4
3. IL-8
All chemokines activate what type of recptors?
GPCR
Name four Ca+ regulating proteins.
1. Calmodulin
2. Gelosin
3. Filamin
4. Profilin
Elevated Ca+ levels activate what two enzymes?
1. Phospholipase A2
2. Protein kinase C
When activated, leukocytes do what four things?
1. Release metabolites of AA via phospholipase A2
2. Release lysosomal enzymes such and activate respiratory burst
3. Release cytokines
4. Change their CAMs
What two types of leukocyte receptors are involved in leukocyte activation?
1. Toll-like Receptors
2. GPCR
TLRs are activated in response to what?
Microbes and their products
What is the most important cytokine receptor expressed by leukocytes? What produces it?
1. INF-Gamma
2. NK cells and Activated T Cells
What is the most effiecent antibody for opsonization?
IgG
What complement product acts in opsonization?
C3b
What does C1q bind to for opsonization?
Mannose binding lectin (MBL)
What are the three steps in phagocytosis?
1. Recognition and attachment
2. Engulfment
3. Killing and degradation
Recognition for phagocytosis is accomplished by what two types of receptors?
1. Mannose Receptor
2. Scavenger Receptor
Engulfment in phagocytosis is dependent on what?
Actin polymerization
What enzyme produces ROIs for killing in phagocytosis?
NADPH Oxidase
What emzyme is the most efficient killer of microbes in neutrophils?
Myeloperoxidase
Name five oxygen independent killing mechanisms.
1. Bacterial Permeability Increasing protein (BPI)
2. Major Basic Protein - parasites
3. Lactoferrin
4. Defensins
5. Lysozyme
Name four scenarios where leukocyte lysosomal products are released into the extracellular space.
1. The phagolysosome is transinently open
2. The phagolysosome tries to eat something immobile or too big
3. The phagolysosome eats something that has membranolytic properties
4. Exocytosis
How is Chediak-Higashi Syndrome inherited? What is wrong in the disease? What is the major morphological feature?
1. Autosomal recessive
2. Cannot get lysosomal enzymes into the lysosome
3. Giant granules in the cell
How is Chronic Granulomatous Disease inherited. What is the major inheritence? What is the problem in this disorder?
1. X-Linked(gp91phox) and Autosomal Recessive (p47phox and p67phox)
2. X-Linked
3. NADPH Oxidase failure
What are the two sources of chemical mediators of inflammation? What is different about the mediators in each?
1. Plasma
2. Cellular products
3. Plasma mediators have to be activated
What are the two causes of the termination of the actue inflammatory response?
1. Reduction in the number of mediators in circulation
2. Release of anti-inflammatory mediators
What are three examples of anti-inflammatory mediators?
1. TGF-Beta
2. Lipoxins
3. Neurologic inhibition (cholinergic)
Histamine is a major player in what? What is the major source of histamine? What are three effects of histamine? What type of receptors does histamine bind to?
1. Immediate transient response
2. Mast cells
3. Vasodilation, Increased vascular permeability and vasoconstriction in large arteries
4. H1 receptors
What is the major source of seratonin?
1. Platelets and enterochromaffin cells
What substance is released from mast cells that causes platelets to aggregate?
PAF
The complement system bridges what two immune functions?
1. Innate Immunity
2. Adaptive Immunity
What are the three main effects of the complement system?
1. Increased membrane permeability
2. Opsonization
3. Chemotaxis
What is the most important step in the complement activation?
Activation of C3
C3a, C4a and C5a have what function?
Anaphylatoxins - cause the release of histamine from mast cells
C5a does what four things?
1. Activates lipoxygenase system
2. Activates leukocytes
3. Chemotaxis
4. Enhances adhesion
Opsonization is accomplished by what product of the complement system?
C3b and iC3b
What factor converts prekallirein to kallikrein? What does kallikrein do next?
1. Hageman factor
2. Converts HMWK to bradykinin
What are four functions of bradykinin? What two molecules degrade bradykinin?
1. Pain
2. Vasodilation
3. Increased vascular permeability
4. Contraction of smooth muscle
5. Kininase and ACE
What produces the main link between inflammation and clotting?
Thrombin (Factor IIa)
What factor starts the clotting cascade?
Hageman (12a)
What action does thrombin take in the clotting cascade? What type of receptor does thrombin bind to and what is the result?
1. Cleaving fibrinogen to form fibrin
2. Protease Activated Receptor (PAR - GPCR)
3. P-Selectin, Chemokines, COX, NO and PAF, Endo cell shape change and CAM changes
What are three functions of plasmin?
1. Lyse fibrin clots (also produces fibrin split products which increase vascular permeability)
2. Activate complement C3 (inflammatory)
3. Activate Hageman (Factor XII)
Factor XII can activate what four systems?
1. Clotting
2. Fibinrolytic
3. Kinin
4. Complement
What is an autocoid?
Short range hormone
Is AA free in cells? What enzyme releases it?
1. No it is esterfied to cell membranes.
2. Phosphalipase A2
What is the class of metabolites from AA breakdown called?
Eicosanoids
Which COX enzyme is constitutive?
COX-1
What product of COX is a pro-coagulant?
TxA2
What product of COX works against TxA2?
PGI2
What product of COX is hyperalgesic?
PGE2
What is the major metabolite of the COX pathway in mast cells? What does it do?
1. PGD2
2. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability
What is the predominant enzyme in the lipoxygenase pathway? What is its main product?
1. 5-LO
2. 5-HETE
What are the two functions of LTB4?
1. Chemotaxsis
2. Activator of neutrophils
What are the three functions of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4?
1. Vasoconstriction
2. Increased permeability
3. Bronchospasms
What type of receptors do leukotrines bind to?
Cysteinyl receptors
What produces lipoxins and what do they do? What also blocks leukocye recruitment?
1. Platelets (12-LO)
2. Stop inflammatory responses
3. Resolvins
Glucocorticoids upregulate what substance which prevents AA from being freed from cell membranes?
Lipocortin-1
What does PAF cause?
Activation of everything associated with inflammation
What type of cells mainly produce IL-1 and TNF?
Macrophages
What are the major cytokines of inflammation(2)? What do they do to endothelium?
1. IL-1
2. TNF
3. "Activate" it meaning up-regulate gene expression of inflammatory genes
What does TNF do to neutrophils?
Prime them for attack
What is system actuse phase response(6)? What causes it?
1. Fever
2. Loss of appetite
3. Slow wave sleep
4. Release of neutrophils
5. Release of corticosteroids and tropins
6. Septic shock
What cytokine can contribute to cachexia?
TNF
What are the sour examples of chemokines and the examples of each?
1. C-X-C: IL-8
2. C-C: MIP, MCP, Eotaxin, RANTES
3. C - specific for lymphocytes
4. C - X3 - C: Fractalkine - monocytes and T Cells
What kind of action does NO have? What induces the production from iNOS?
1. Paracrine action that induces cGMP production that in turn causes vasodilation
2. Cytokines
Overall, what is NO? What are three functions of NO?
1. Reducer of inflammation
2. Inhibits platelt aggregation
3. Inhibits mast cell induced inflammation
4. Regulates leukocyte recruitment
How is NO bacteriacidal?
Combines with ROIs to make RNIs.
What are the two types of neutrophil granules? What is different about the releasal of each?
1. Primary/Azurophilic and Secondary/Specific
2. Azurophilic granules need high amounts of mediators present to cause their releasal
What cleaves elastase?
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin
High levels of ROI can do what three things?
1. Damage endothelium (xanthine oxidation)
2. Damage antiproteases
3. Damage tissue
Name five antioxidants.
1. Ceruloplasmin
2. Transferrin
3. GPoxidase
4. SOD
5. Catalase
What are the four functions of neuropeptide P?
1. Regulate BP
2. Pain
3. Endocrine secretion
4. Increase vascular permeability
Hypoxia induced factor increases the release of what?
VEGF
Name three early vasodilators.
1. Histamine
2. NO
3. Prostaglandins
Increased vascular permeability caused by what six things?
1. Histamine
2. Kinins
3. Anaphylatoxins
4. LTE LTD LTC
5. PAF
6. Substance P
Chemotaxis is cause by what three things?
1. C5a
2. LTB4
3. Chemokines - IL-8
Prostaglandins cause what four things?
1. Pain
2. Vasodilation
3. Fever
4. Edema
TNF and IL-1 cause what three things?
1. Endo Leuko interactions
2. Active phase reactants
3. Leukocyte recruitment
What three situations lead to chronic inflammation?
1. Persistent infections
2. Prolonged exposure to toxic agents
3. Auto-immunity
What are the three morphologic features of chronic inflammations?
1. Mononuclear infiltration
2. Tissue distruction
3. Fibrosis
What are two endogenous pyrogens?
1. TNF
2. IL-1
What replaces apolipoprotein and causes HDLs to be the main NRG source for macrophages?
Serum Amaloid A