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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The central gray matter consistst of ______________ and ________________.
The central gray matter consists of NEURONAL CELL BODIES and SYNAPSES.
Peripheral white matter consists of _______________________.
Consists of ascending/descending fiber pathways (motor and sensory).
What consists of a muscle unit?
A single motor neuron and all of its muscle fibers.
What is the largest cells of the spinal cord and "final common pathway" from the central nervous system to the periphery?
Alphamotor neuron (innervates many mucle fibers, but each muscle fiber innervated by only 1 alphamotor neuron).
What is a spinal reflex and what is its pathway?
A stereotyped motor response to stimuli, from periphery--synapes in sc---alphamotor neurons--muscle fibers.
The corticospinal (motor) pathway extends from the _____ area of cortex through brain stem and _________ between brainstem and spinal cord.
1 - motor area
2 - crosses
Where do the fibers synapse, just prior to leaving the cord?
In the anterior horn.
Describe decorticate posturing.
Flexion of wrist and elbow and extension of ankle and knee - due to cereabl injury.
Describe decerebrate posturing.
Posturing similar to decorticate, but with elbows extended - due to midbrain injury.
First order neurons, otherwise known as _________ are neurons that are (above or below?) the synapse in the anterior horn?
1 - Upper motor neurons
2 - above the synapse
Peripheral motor neurons are called ________________, and are ___________ order neurons.
1 - Lower motor neurons
2 - Second
Gullian-Barre syndrome involves ___________ and _________ loss due to peripheral nerve involvement.
1 - Sensory
2 - Lower Motor Neuron
Visible, continuous and rapid twitching of a muscle or part of a muscle, without movement of the limb is called __________.
Fasciculation.
Rhythmic involuntary back and forth movements that can be as fast as trembling, which usually involves movement of limb or body part:________.
Tremor
In Parkinson's disease, tremor is present when?
At rest.
In cerebellar disorders, tremor is present when?
Tremor is intentional.
_______, which are repetitive twitching of a muscle group, can be ________ or ________ in origin.
TICS, which are repetitive twitching of muscle groups, can be EMOTIONAL or NEUROLOGICAL in origin.
Which abnormal movement involves obvious, rapid, suddent, involuntary jerky movements that may involve limbs, trunk or face?
Chorea
Describe athetosis:
Slow, writhing, and twisting movements.
What is myoclonus?
Sudden, fast, unpredictable, and involuntary jerky movements.
True or false, upper motor neuron defects present with flaccid paralysis, significant atrophy, fasciculations, hyporeflexia, no Babinksi.
False. These are signs of Lower Motor Neuron Defects. UMN defects include spastic paralysis, no significant muscle atrophy, no fasciculations, hyperreflexia, Babinksi may be present.
Which tract is involved in maintaining posture (righting reflex and whole body orientation)?
Ventromedial Tracts
Which tracts are involved in distal musculature, initiation and control of voluntary movements?
Dorsolateral Tracts
What is the term for when mechanisms involving injury to the basal ganglia motor pathways occur outside the cortical "pyramidal" system?
Extrapyramidal
The basal ganglia consists of the ______________, ___________, and _____________________.
The BG consists of the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus (w/associated areas including substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus)
The neostriatum or striatum consists of: ____________ & ____________.
Striatum - caudate & putamen
The lentiform nucleus consists of _____________ & ______________.
Lentiform nuclues - putamen & globus pallidus
What areas consist of the corpus striatum?
Striatum & globus pallidus
Involuntary movements =
Dyskinesia
Slowness in initiating or changing without significant weakness =
Bradykinesia
What involves abnormal fixation?
Equilibrium & righting
What are the motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease?
Rigidity, bradykinesia, resting tremor, loss of postural reflexes.
Identify the following: sudden, forceful, and flailing dyskinesias involving the whole lomb (i.e., contra- lateral arm in subthalamic nucleus).
Ballism
Describe athetosis.
Slow, worm-like, writhing movements, usually in the extremities.
Where would a typical lesion be to produce athetosis?
Lesion in the striatum, usually the putamen.
Identify the disorder of the trunk and limb involving writhing movements that cause severe sustained contortion of neck, shoulder girdle, & pelvic girdle.
Torsion dystonia
Which disease usually includes involuntary movements of limbs that are brisk and graceful and have the appearance of fractions of purposeful movements?
Huntington's chorea
Lesions in which region cause ataxia, hypotonia, ipsilateral malfunctioning, dysdiadocho- kinesia, and past pointing?
Lesions of the cerebellum.
What is dysdiodochokinesia?
A failure to rapidly alternate movements.
What is past pointing?
Inability to touch finger to nose or heel to shin.
In ____________________, the arm on the affected side is held _____ and immobile against the body, instead of swinging freely.
In SPASTIC HEMIPARESIS, the arm on the affected side is held FLEXED and immobile against the body, instead of swinging freely.
In spastic hemiparesis, the affected _________ is moved forward stiffly and in a _________ fashion, sometimes with the ___dragging on the floor as the _____ moves foward.
In spastic hemiparesis, the affected LEG is moved forward stiffly and in a SEMI-CIRCLE fashion, sometimes with the TOE dragging on the floor as the LEG moves foward.
Describe scissors gait.
Steps are abnormally short and appear effortful. The knees remain in contact as if the patient was holding something between their thighs while walking.
In which disease is scissor gait sometimes seen?
Multiple Sclerosis.
In ataxia, the patient walks with their feet _______________. They typically have a hard time with balance.
In ataxia, the patient walks with their feet WIDE APART. They typically have a hard time with balance.
Describe the condition when muscle tone is less than normal and the limb feels limp to the evaluator.
Flaccidity
What is posture retention?
When a limb remains in a position that it was moved to or in which it was before it was moved.
Describe rigidity.
A limb that is abnormally resistant to movement in all directions.
When the limb does actually move, but with jerky, rather than smooth movements it is called ________. This is often seen in __________________.
When the limb does actually move, but with jerky, rather than smooth movements it is called COGWHEEL RIGIDITY. This is often seen in PD.
__________ occurs in impairment of upper motor neuron, with ________ in muscle tension characterized by certain postural changes involving flexion of finger, hand, arm, legs.
SPASTICITY occurs in impairment of upper motor neuron, with INCREASE in muscle tension characterized by certain postural changes involving flexion of finger, hand, arm, legs.