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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Motor Speech Disorders
•Speech disorders resulting from Neurologic impairment affecting the motor planning, programming, neuromuscular control, or execution of speech.
•deficit in ability to smoothly sequence the speech producing movements in the lips, tongue, and Jaw
•typically affects articulation and prosody
•disordered utterance
•impaired production of speech due to disturbances in the muscular control of the speech production mechanism
•result to damage of the CNS or PNS
5 main components of speech production
- articulation
During inhaliation patient exhibits inhalitory striator…what might this indicate?
•Weakness of vocal fold abduction, this sometimes can be detected during quite breathing but it is more readily detected during rapid inhalation for speech or when the patient takes a deep breath
•Bilateral weakness or paralysis causes an inhilatory stiator
Role of the cerebellar control circuit in motor speech productions (explain how role is fulfilled)
•cerebellar hemispheres control movement on ipsilateral side of the body
•lateral cerebellar hemispheres pf posterior cerebellar lobe helps to coordinate skilled voluntary muscle activity and tone
•cerebellum monitors adequacy of movement based on feedback from muscles, tendons, and joint
Characteristics of Flaccid Dysarthria
• atrophy,
• bells palsy,
• lower motor neuron,
• cranial nerves,
• bulbar palsy,
• mysethenia gravia.
• Paralysis/ paresis
• Significant hypernasality

WRONG ONES are… slurred and drunken speech quality and difficulty coordinating breathing and speech.
List one published test that can be used in the evaluation of motor speech disorders. Indicate whether this test was standardized or not….
• Darley’s Oral Motor Evaluation, No it’s not standardized
• Frenchay –standarized
Describe the desire to move in terms of taking that desire and turning it into movement via a sophisticated sequence of neuromotor function.
Voluntary movements begin in the primary motor cortex which transmits via the pyramidal system to the brainstem which transmits further to the cranial or spinal nerve.
List the components of the direct activating system.
Find and edit
Provide a description/definition of what it means to have normal muscle strength, range, speed, accuracy, steadiness and tone. Then, provide an example of disordered function as it pertains to the voice and speech musculature for each.
Following are the flashcards:
• Strength: ability to contract a muscle to a desired level and sustain that
level for a desired period of time before relaxing
 Progressive repetition typically decreases the proper function, examples: weakness involving the laryngeal valve causes difficulty sustaining a vowel, breathiness, hoarseness, rapid contractions, and/or hard glottal attacks.
• Range: the distance traveled by speech structures
 Affects the prosodic features of speech, sometimes resulting in restricted or excessive prosodic variations. They can be visiable during speech and nonspeech movements of the articulators
Speed: multiple repetitions of muscle contractions
 Slowness of movement predominately effects prosody. Speech is slow and characterized by placement of excessive stress on usually unstressed syllables and words
Accuracy: the result of precision in the strength, speed, range, direction,
and timing of muscular activity
 Inaccuracy of movements vary unpredictable and is greater when the task is more demanding (difficult speech sounds over/under shoot targets)
 Inaccurate timing and coordination typically observed in ataxia or apraxia of speech
• at rest, the body is normally quiet, still, and there is little no visible activity
 breakdowns result in deviations such as hyperkinesias, and random involuntary movement
• mild, gentle resistance to displacement or passive stretching
 Alterations in tone affect primarily the phonation aspech of speech.
 Reduced tone is associated with flaccid dysarthria, increased tone is spastic dysarthira
Describe what happens at the neuromuscular junction.
• Where the axons of the LMN make synaptic connection with the muscle cells The information and electrical impulse are being sent to the muscle, before it gets there it causes a synapse, the muscle contracts when enough acetocholine is released. The spot where that happens is the neuromuscular junction.
Decribe the role of the basal ganglia
• The basal ganglia links the association cortex with the primary motor cortex and take the rough motor impulses from the association cortex, smooth them out, coordinate them, and then send them to the primary motor cortex
Be able to list one of the following cortical association areas
4 answers are below:
Visual Association cortex
• Visual Association – damage can cause motion blindness or i.e. difficulty perceiving movement of objects (ex, running vs frozen water)
Temporal Asso. Cortex
• Temporal- recognition of complex visual stimuli, integrating auditory stimuli, formulation of memories (damage to this area can cause visual agnosia, amnesia, and distractibility
Frontal Asso. Cortex
• Frontal- access to all sensory centers in the brain, receives information about emotion, motivation from subcortical structures
Parietal Ass. Cortex
• Parietal- integrating body sensations with visual information. (damage can cause impairments in manipulating objects sensory neglect of half of the body, reading and writing deficits)
Pyramidal Sustem
• pyramidal – a “direct” route for information to travel from the cortex to the cranial and spinal nerves. It has the corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts. Sometimes called the direct activation system. And is responsible for carrying the impulses that control voluntary fine motor movements
Extrapyramidal system
Extrapyrimidal – an “indirect” route known as the indirect activation system. It refers to motor tracts not part of the pyramidal system. It provides postural support for the pyramidal to execute.
• For example: when a person is typing on a keyboard it is the pyramidal system that carries the motor impulses that enable the person to make coordination independent finger movements. The extrapyramidal system carry impulses that keep the arms, shoulders, and back in position that permit the fingers to move over the keyboard.
 List 6 main cranial nerves responsible for voice and speech production, and briefly describe each CN’s primary motor function
o V. Trigeminal
o VII. Facial
o IX. Glossopharyngeal
o X. Vagus
o XI. Spinal Accessory
o XII. Hypoglossal
Frontal lobe
o Frontal
 Concerned with reasoning, planning, parts of speech and movement, emotions, and problem solving
Parietal Lobe
o Parietal
 Concerned with perception of stimuli related to touch, pressure, temperature and pain
Temporal lobe
o Temporal
 Concerned with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli and memory
Occipital lobe
o Occipital
 Concerned with many aspects of vision
Pyramidal tract
 Sometimes called the Direct Activating System
 Forms part of the Upper Motor Neuron system
 Motor Strip
 Voluntary
 This tract includes the corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts
Extrapyramidal tract
 Sometimes called the Indirect Activation System
 Refers to motor tracts not part of the pyramidal system
 Forms part of the Upper Motor Neuron System
 Provides a base of support
 Postural support and Muscle Tone
 Includes the corticorubral and corticoreticular
Lower motor neurons
o Lower motor neurons
 Begins at the point of the cell body, after the synapse
 Damage to a LMN causes damage to the same side
Upper motor neurons
o Upper motor neurons
 Prior to the synapse
 Damage to a UMN causes damage to the opposite side