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158 Cards in this Set

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Motor Speech Disorders (breakdown of words)
Motor- Part of nervous system that controls voluntary mvmt
Speech- comm with vocal symbols
Disorders- abnormal function
4 Parts of Speech
1. Resonant System
2. Articulatory System
3. Respiratory System
4. Phonatory System
*5. Prosody (intonation, juncture, timing, etc.)
Motor Speech Disorders Definition
-refers to a collection os speech production deficits that are caused by the abnormal functioning of the motor system
-disorders of speech resulting from neurological impairment affecting the mottor programming or neuromuscular execution of speech
How many types of motor speech disorders?
7 types of dysarthria (neuromuscular execution) and 1 type of apraxia (motor programming)
Apraxia is a disorder of:
representational movement
Neurological Process of Speech Production
1st: Cognitive-Linguistic Process: thoughts converted to verbal symbols according to lang. rules
2nd: Motor Speech Programming: Verbal message organized
3rs: Neuromuscular Execution: CNS and PNS activity execute apeech motor programs
Disorder at Cognitive-Linguistic Process stage?
Aphasia or Dimentia
Disorder at Motor Speech Programming stage?
Disorder at Neuromuscular Execution stage?
1 of 7 Dysarthrias
Disordered Utterance
Dys: disordered or abnormal
arthria: utter distictly

impaired production of speedh due to disturbances in the muscular control of the speech production mechanism
Origin of Dysarthria
Dysarthria is neurological in origin (damage to CNS and/or PNS)
Dysarthria affects what areas of movement of speech?
speed, strength, range, timing, accuracy, resonance, articulation, and prosody
A- without action
praxis- performance of an action

a deficit in the avility to smoothly sequence the speech producing mvmts of the tongue, lips, and jaw
What 2 areas of speech does apraxia typically affect?
articulation and prosody
Apraxia occurs with or without other disorders?
Apraxia can occur with or without dimentia
Methods for studying and Categorizing Motor Speech Disorders
Perceptual (Gold Standard)
Acoustic (will not give Dx)
Physiological (only confirm)
Characterizing Motor Speech Disordrs
Must look at:
-age of onset (congenital or acquired)
-course (congenital, chronic, stationary, improving (stroke), progressive, degenerative (ALS), exacerbating (MS), remitting (MS)
-site of lesion
-neurologic diagnosis
-speech components
-perceptual characteristics
Disease Categories
Degenerative Disease
decline is function
Inflammatory Disease
Focal(typically caused by absess)
drug toxicity, liver disease
tumor (astrocytoma is most common CNS type; meningiomas, schwannoma)
most common cause; cerebral vascular accident (CVA stroke); AVM (Arterior venus malformation)
Disease Course
symptoms resolve completely after onset (ex. TIA-transiet iscemic attack- present less than 24hrs. due to lack of oxygen)
severity is reduced by symptoms are not resolved (ex. Stroke)
(aka digenerative)
symptoms continue to progress or new symptoms appear (ex. Alzheimers)
remitting- symptoms develop, improve, recur, worsen (ex. MS)
symptoms remain unchanged after reaching max severity (ex. CP)
involves a single area or contiguous group of structures
involves more than one area or groups of structures
involves roughly symmetric portions of the nervous systems bilaterally
ex. Diffuse Axonal Injury: TBI leads to axon stretch
Acute Symptoms
Develop within minutes (stroke)
Subacute Symptoms
Develop within days (guillian-barre)
Chronic Symptoms
Develop within months (dimentia)
What is the motor system a part of?
the nervous system
CNS neurons=
Upper Motor Neurons
PNS neurons-
Lower Motor Neurons
How many cranial nerves?
12 pairs
How many spinal nerves?
31 pairs
How are cranial nerves named?
Cranial nerves are named because they project from parts of the CNS that are within the cranium
How are spinal nerves named?
Spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord and innervate most of the other muscles of the body includign the chest, arms, & legs
What is the key component of the nervous system?
the brain

-all activity in the nervous system originates in or is ultimatley processed by the brain
Where do voluntary commands to the muscles originate?
in the brain
split into 2 hemispheres by the logitudinal fissure which runs front to back along the middle of the brain
4 lobes
What fissure seperates the frontal and parietal lobes?
rolandic fissure or central sulcas
What fissure seperates the temporal fissure from the frontal lobe?
silvian fissure or lateral sulcus
Where is the ZONE OF LANGUAGE?
in the left hemisphere at the silvian fissure/lateral sulcus
many deep convolutions
groove between gyri
Lateral Sulcus
most prominent, runs each hemisphere and seperates the temporal lobe from frontal lobe
Central Sulcus
located near center of lateral sides of each hemisphere and extends vertically from very top of hemispheres down to lateral sulcus
Precentral Gyrus
organized by functional command to move begin here
-movements rather than individual muscles
Post Central Gyrus
-tactile sensations land here and begin interpretation
-where begin to feel
lays out precentral (motor strip) gyrus functions
What is the function of the nerve cells in the precentral gyrus?
they control voluntary movements of the body
What happens in the post central gyrus?
higher centers of the brain receive sensory info from body via PSN and other portions of CNS
Cerebral Cortex
surface of the cerebrum
White Matter
full of axons sending messages from one place to another
Gray Matter
full of cell bodies
What type of matter is the cortex?
gray matter
Why is the cortex such an important part of the nervous system?
It covers the Cerebral Cortex
What type of pathway is in the CNS?
What type of pathway is in the PNS?
What cognitive functions are performed in the cortex?
-motor planning
-problem solving
-sensory perception
Parts of Brainstem
-divided from top to botom
-sits between cerebellum and spinal cord
acts as a passageway for the descending and ascending neurals that travel between the cerebrum and spinal cord
Reticular Formation
gray matter area that runs through the brain stem to reticula activiating system
Reticular Activating System
important in attention and alerting brain

-sends info to thalamus
What is the result of significant damage to the reticular activating system?
Brainstem controls
certain integrative and relexive actions, such as respiration, consciousness, and some parts of cardiovascular system functions
How are the cranial nerves numbered?
according to how far down the brainstem they exit
which cranial nerves are part of speech system?
V, VII, IX, X, maybe XII, XII (most important)
UMN contralateral or ipsilateral?
LMN contralateral or ipsilateral?
Cerebellum location
attched to the back of the brainstem where it makes nerual connections with the cerbral cortex and other parts of the CNS
Cerebellum function
coordinates voluntary movements so muscles contract with teh correct amount of force and at the approprate time

-makes corrections if, for example, the tongue comes too far out before /s/ or leaning to side when walking
Cerebellar damage
causes significant deficits in performance of both gross motor and skilled motor actions

-lesion to cerebellum affects coordination of speech
Corona Radiata
cranial nerves leave precentral gyrus and then FAN before comeing together again
Internal Capsule
where cranial nerves come together at basal ganglia after fan of corona radiata
Where does the LMN start?
at the cell body
What happens if LMN is damaged?
disfunction on same side as damage
What happens if UMN is damaged?
disfunction on opposite side of damage
How are neurons classified?
by the type of info they carry
Motor Neuron
transmits neural impulses that cause contractions in muscles (and thereby cause mvmt)
Sensory Neuron
carries info related to sensory stimuli
link neurons with other neurons and form connections with other neurons
Efferent Neurons
transmit their impulses away from the CNS
Afferent Neurons
send impulses toward the CNS
Commisural Tract
between hemispheres (ex. corpus collosum)
Association Tract
one part of a hemisphere to another (es. arcuit fisiculus)
Big Tract
Projection Tract
travel between higher and lower levels of CNS (ex. corticobulbar tract)
Pyramidal System
system of voluntary motor mvmt from CNS and PNS
Extra Pyramidal System
invovled in (maintain) support upon which pyramidal system can make mvmts

-comprised of diff tracts (voluntary mvmts)
What tract does the cortico bulbar and corticospinal tracts belong to?
Pyramidal Tract
What tract does the corticoreticular/
corticorubral tracts belong to?
Extra Pyramidal Tract
electrical chemical impulses, a means by which neural impulses are transmitted from one part of the nervous system to another
What is the motor system responsible for?
all motor activity involving striated muscle, essential to normal relexes, maintining muscle tone/posture, and planning
Primary Motor Pathway AKA
Corticospinal pathway
How are pathways named?
From beginning to end
Where does association cortex recieve info from?
Mostly the primary cortex
What kind of cortex is Heschl's Gyrus?
Primary Cortex
What kind of cortex is Wernicke's Gyrus?
Association Cortex
What is the primary cortex comprised of?
parts of the cerebrum that are dedicated to the analysis of a signle type of neural input.
What are the areas of the primary cortex?
Primary auditory cortex, primary visual cortex, primary sensory cortex, and primary motor cortex
What is the primary cortex responsible for involving auditory and visual info?
responsible for initial processing of auditory and visual (bodily sensation) info
What path does sensory take?
Association to primary
What does the primary auditory cortex localize?
What does the visual cortex do?
analyzes depth and perhaps integrates visual info from both eyes
What does damage of the primary visual cortex result in?
loss of conscious awareness of visual damage
What does the primary sensory cortex do?
receives 1st neural input about bodily sensation (ex. pressure, temp, touch, etc.)
Association Cortex
"makes sense" of sensory impulses that have been initially analyzed by primary cortex
Association areas
Temporal, Frontal, Parietal, Visual
Temporal Association area
recognizes complex visual stimuli, integrating auditory, and form memories
Damage to the temporal assoc. area=
visual agnosia, amnesai, distractability
Frontal Association area
access to all sensory areas in brain, receives info on emotion, motivation from subcortical structure
Parietal Association area
integrating body sensation with visual info
Damage to parietal assoc. area=
impairment in manipulating objects, sensory neglect of half of the body, reading and writing deficit
Visual Association are
receives visual sensory impulses
Damage to visual assoc. area=
difficulty with perceiving mvmt of objects, running water/froze, etc.
Entire picture of mvmt=
basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus
What two areas work together in mvmt?
Basal ganglia and cerebellum
Basal Ganglia
Collective name for Caudate nucleus, Putamen, and Globus pallidus located near the lateral ventricles
Caudate Nucleus and Putamen together
Where is neural output of Basal Ganglia sent?
Mostly to thalamus
Substantia Nigra
Influes basal ganglia and produces dopamine
What is substantia nigra dopamine levels are decreased to striatum?
muscle rigity, muscle tremor, difficulty initiating mvmt
regulate muscle, maintain tone, coordinate skilled motor mvmt (balance and posture)
path of cerebellum
receives infor from association cortex and passes info on to primary cortex through thalamus
doorway through which subcortical system of vervous sytem communicate with cerebral cortex
Where does the thalamus receive info from?
receives neural inputs of planned motor mvmts from both BG and cerebellum
Where is the thalamus located?
behing the basal ganglia
Role of Primary Motor Cortex
take voluntary mvmt patterns that are formulated elsewhere and transmit them to cranial nerves via the pyramidal system
Pyramidal System
responsible for carrying impulses that control voluntary, fine motor mvmts
Extra Pyramidal System
transmits impulses that control postural support
What is the key component of the motor system?
motor pathway
Pyramidal system=
direct activation system (direct path from cortex to cranial and spinal nerves)
Extra Pyramidal System=
indirect activation system
What does damage to UMN result in?
What does damage to LMN result in?
weakness, muscle paralysis/paresis (flaccidity)
Where do the neural impulses arrive?
at the place where the muscle contracts to cause mvmt
Final Common Pathway
LMN and neuromuscular junction of cranial nerves are FCP for speech
Direct Activation System
begins at motor strip involves tract taht leaves motor strip
Indeirect Activation Pathway
extrapyramidal responsible for postural support and tone
Control Circuits
cerebellum (coordinates mvmt) and Basal Ganglia (smooth mvmt)
Final Common Pathway
LMN (last link for mvmt)/stimulates muscle contraction and mvmt and mediate muscle tone
Which nerves are involved in FCP?
cranial and spinal nerves
What does damage to the Final Common Pathway cause?
weakness or paralysis
Where does the final common pathway get info from?
Direct and Indirect activiation system
Where do impulses from direct and indirect systems move through?
Basal Ganglia
Speech production components
Respiration, Phonation, Resonance, Articulation, (Prosody)
Salient Features
muscle strength, speed, range of mvmt,steadiness, tone, and accuracy (for every muscle grp)
Confirmatory Signs
atrophy, emotional, pathological relexes
Emotional Lability
uninhibited emotional response to a small incident
Pseudobulbar Affect
response of crying or laughing in a context that would not normally elicit this kind of emotion