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30 Cards in this Set

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Humoral Response
Hypothalamic neurons respond to sensory signals by stimulating or inhibiting the release of pituitary hormones to the bloodstream
Visceromotor Response
Neurons in the hypothalamus respond to sensory signals by adjusting the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic outputs of the ANS
Somatic Motor Response
Hypothalamic neurons (particularly within the lateral hypothalamus) respond to sensory signals by inciting an appropriate somatic response.
Motivated behaviors
Generated by the somatic motor system and they are incited to occur by the activity of the lateral hypothalamus.
Anabolism
AKA Anabolic metabolism.
The assembly of macromolecules such as glycogen and triglycerides from simple precursors
Prandial state
Immediately during/after meal when nutrients are replenished and blood is filled with them
Catabolism
AKA Catabolic metabolism.
Process of breaking down complex molecules (opposite of anabolism).
Lipostatic hypothesis
The brain monitors the amount of body fat and acts to defend this energy store against perturbations. First proposed in 1953 by Kennedy
ob/ob mice
Experiment by Douglas Coleman using mice to demonstrate that the mice could fool their brains into thinking their fat reserves were low and would store more
Leptin
The protein encoded by the ob gene. Treating ob/ob mice with leptin reverses obesity. Released by adipocytes, regulates body mass
Lateral hypothalamic syndrome
Anorexia caused by damage to the lateral hypothalamus.
Ventromedial hypothalamic syndrome
Overeating and obesity caused by lesions to the ventromedial hypothalamus
Arcuate nucleus
Location of leptin receptors on the base of the 3rd ventricle. Leptin released into bloodstream by adipocytes, activate these receptors.
Paraventricular nucleus
When neurons here are activated, a humoral response is triggered which causes the release of hypophysiotropic hormones that regulate secretioin of TSH and ACTH from the anterior pituitary
Anorectic peptides
Peptides that diminish appetite (injection of alphaMSH and CART neurons mimics response to elevated leptin levels)
Orexigenic peptides
Stimulate feeding behavior
Lateral hypothalamic area
Lateral hypothalamus is critical in feeding behavior but has no well-defined nuclei.
Rise in leptin
increases alphaMSH and CART in arcuate nucleus neurons. These anorectic peptides act on the brain to inhibit feeding behavior and increase metabolism
Fall in leptin
increases NPY and AgRP in the arcuate nucleus and MCH in the lateral hypothalamic area. These orexigenic peptides stimulate feeding behavior and decrease metabolism
OVLT
Vascular organ of the lamina terminalis. Lacks blood brain barrier. Where hypertonicity is sensed. Located in telencephalon.
Cephalic phase
Initial biological responses (e.g. secretion of saliva in mouth and digestive juices in stomach)
Gastric phase
Responses of cephalic phase grow much more intense when chewing/swallowing begins
Substrate phase
Nutrients begin to be absorbed into bloodstream
Ghrelin
A peptide highly concentrated in the stomach and released into bloodstream when stomach is empty.
Gastric distension
Satiety signal. Vagus nerve sense information about stomach to brain. Vagal sensory neurons.
CCK
Cholecystokinin inhibits meal frequency and size. Present in some cells that line intestines and in some of the neurons of the enteric nervous system. Released in response to stimulation of intestines.
Insulin
Released by Beta cells of the pancreas. Transports glucose
Electrical self-stimulation
Rat with electrode into brain wandered about box and stepped on lever by accdent. Before long it was pressing the lever repeatedly, stimulating self.
Volumetric thirst
Thirst triggered by loss of volume e.g. blood loss
Osmometric thirst
Drink when dehydrated