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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the process which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical
or psychological needs or wants are met.
extrinsic motivation
type of mot. in which a person performs an action b/c it leads to an outcome that is separate
from an external to the person.
giving money for a good job done or for grades
instinct approach
approach to mot. that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of
drive-reduction theory
approach to mot.tion that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that
cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce the
tension fro arousal.
the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state
need for achievement (nAch)
a need that involes a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals, not only realisitic
ones but also challenging ones
Carol Dweck's self theory of motivation
"the need for achievement is closely linked to personality factors, inc. a person's view of how self, the belifes one holds about one's abilities and relationships to others, acn affect the understanding of how one person's actions can influence his or her success." "People's own theories about their own selves can affect
their level of achievement motivation and their willingness to keep trying to achievesucces in the face of failure."
stimulus motive
a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such
as curiousity
arousal theory
theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
law stating performance is related to arousal, moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high. This effect varies
with the difficulty of the task, easy tasks require a high-moderate level while more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level
incentive approaches
theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external
stimulus and its rewarding properties
expectancy-value theories
incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully
understood without understanding beliefs, values, and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment in time
Peak Experiences
Times in a person's life in which self-actualizationis achieved, at least temp.
self-determination theory (SDT)
theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type
of motivation existing for the action
intrinsic motivation
type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or
satisfying in some internal manner
a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reduing the lelvel of glucose in the bloodstream.
hormones that are secreted bu the pandcreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbs in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the bloodstream
weight set point
the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain
a hormone that when released into the bloodstream signaks the hyothamalus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full
anorexia nervosa
a condition in which a peson reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15% below the ideal body weight or more occurs
the "feeling" aspect of consciousness, characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior
that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelings.
Common sense theory of emotion
in the commonsense theory of emotion, a stimulus (dog barking) leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to
bodily arousal (shaking)
James-Lange theory of emotion
theory which a physciological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion
cannon-bard theory of emotion
theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time.
as timulus leads to activity in the brain, which then sends signals to arouse the body and interpret the emotion at the same time
cognitive arousal theory
theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling opf that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced
Schachter's cognitive arousal theory of emotion
s's cognitve arousal theory is similar to the James-lange theory but adds the element of cognitive labeling
of the arousal. in this theory, a stimulus leads to both bodily arousal and the labeling of that arousal, which leads to the experience and labeling of the emotional reaction.
lazarus's theory of emtion
in l's cognitve-mediational theory of emotion, a stimulus causes an immediate appraisal (dog not beind
fence and therefore dangerous). the cognitve appraisal results in emotional response, which is then followed by the app. bodily response.
facial feedback hypothesis
theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning
the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion
cognitive-mediational theory
theory of emotion in wihch a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction.
positive psychology movement
a viewpoint that recommends shifting the focus of psychology away from the negative aspects to a
more positive focus on strengths, well ebing, and the persuits of happiness.