Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The gynoecium (ji-nee-see-um) is all of the parts that make up the female part of the flower. This includes the carpel(s) and all of their parts (stigma, style, ovary and ovule).
The androecium (an-dree-see-um) is all of the parts that make up the male part of the flower. This includes the stamens and all of their parts (filament, anther and pollen).
The perianth is the outer protective cover which includes the often showy petals and sepals. (Corrolla and Calyx)
Pedicel – modified stem leading to the flower
Receptacle - end of stem on which flower is borne
sepals - outer (lower) whorl of parts; often greenish
- function to protect, photosynthesize, attract pollinators
calyx - collective term for sepals of one flower
petals - second whorl of parts; often colorful
- function to attract pollinators, but often missing in wind-pollinated plants
corolla - collective term for petals of one flower
stamens - pollen producing structures
- provide ‘male’ function in reproduction (pollen = male, or micro-gametophyte; sperm
are produced here)consist of long filament supporting the anther, where pollen is produced
carpel - ovule producing structures (ovules contain the megagametophyte; eggs are
produced here. Includes the stigma, style and ovary).
consists of swollen ovary at base, elongate style supporting the stigma at the tip, where
pollen is deposited
- provides ‘female’ function in reproduction
ovule - the egg-producing gametophyte is contained in this structure; bitegmic ovules
(ovules with 2 integuments) are a synapomorphy for angiosperms.
placenta - tissue lining the ovary that bears the ovules
Simple and Compound
pistil - generalized term for each individual female structure in a flower
When single or separate, each carpel equals one pistil – simple pistil
When fused together, one pistil may consist of many carpels - compound pistil
Parietal Placentation
parietal placentation - ovules attached along the ovary wall
“primitive” carpel a folded megasporophyll with ovules along fused margins
Axile Placentation
axile placentation - ovules attached to a central septum in the center of the ovary
Free Central Placentation
free central - axile with the septum missing
Basal Placentation
basal - derived from either axile or parietal, but only attaching at the base
Function of petals and sepals
Called the perianth.
Protection of pistals and stamen and attraction of pollinators
What morphology do beatles tend to pollinate?
Beetles tend to visit and pollinate flowers that are actinomorphic,
dull-colored, musky, without nectar guides, and with plenty of pollen and possibly
special food bodies.
What morpology do flies pollinate?
Flies visit two types of flowers. The carrion flies visit usually
maroon or green flowers that lack nectar guides and that have a rotten, fetid odor. The
small flies may visit open, dish-shaped flowers that are light blue or yellow, with faint
nectar guides, and with no or faint odor.
What morphopogy do bees pollinate?
Bees are rather indiscriminate, but prefer
flowers that are blue or yellow and with moderately abundant nectar.
What morphology do butterflys pollinate?
usually visit tubular flowers with vivid colors and with plenty of nectar.
What morphology do moths tend to pollinate?
Moths typically
visit tubular, white flowers that open at night or at dusk; these usually have strong and
sweet odors and abundant nectar, but lack nectar guides.
What morphology do bats tend to pollinate?
Bats visit bell-shaped or
tubular flowers that open at night or at dusk; the flowers may be white, maroonish or a
drab color and have strong odors reminiscent of fermentation.
What morphology do hummingbirds tend to pollinate?
Hummingbirds prefer
red, tubular flowers that produce abundant nectar; these flowers generally lack an odor
and are erect or at right angles to the stem axis.
Describe the morphology of wind pollinated flowers
Wind-pollinated flowers typically have
a reduced or inconspicuous perianth, large stamens that produce abundant, smooth
pollen, and a gynoecium with an enlarged stigmatic area; adaptations for wind
pollination appear to set the stage in many groups for the development of unisexual
flowers from bisexual ones.
Selfing typically involves the transfer of pollen from anther to receptive stigma
within a given flower (with or without the aid of animal vectors)
geitonogamy in which pollen is transferred (usually by animals)
between flowers on the same plant
Autogamous. Describe typical morphology
Self-compatible plants that are self-pollinating.
small, have monocolored sepals and petals, lack nectar
guides or nectaries and have stamens and carpels maturing simultaneously. The
number of pollen grains and ovules produced is less than in outcrossing plants.
Autogamous plants are good colonizers and often occur in the first stages of ecological
succession. They usually have a broad geographic distribution and may be known as
weeds. Seed-set is assured and most, if not all, of the fruits on a given plant will form
seed. A population of autogamous individuals or inbreeders will tend to be very similar
morphologically, with not nearly as much variation as is evident in outbreeding
Describe typical morphology of out crossers
Outcrossers tend to have showy perianths, nectar guides and
nectaries (if animal-pollinated), a large amount of pollen and numerous ovules, and
reproductive structures that mature at different times. Because of chance pollination
events, only some of the fruits mature and only a portion of the ovules ripen into seeds
Protandry and Protogyny
occurs when stamens mature and release pollen before stigmas in the same flower are
receptive. When stigmas become receptive before stamens mature in the same flower,
the condition is termed protogyny.
Monecious vs. Dioecious
Male and female flowers on same plant vs. separate male and female plants. Tend to be wind pollinators. Dioecious plants tend to have small white, yellow, or pale green flowers
Define morphology vs. anatomy
Morphology is form and structure of plants and thier parts. Anatomy is the cell and tissue structure of a plant
Vegetative morphology
- any portion of a plant that is involved in growth, development, photosynthesis, support, etc., but NOT involved with sexual reproduction. Example: roots, stems, leaves, seeds, etc.
Reproductive morphology
- any portion of a plant that is involved with or a direct product of sexual reproduction Example: flowers, fruits, seeds, etc.
The seed is a young plant in which development is arrested and the plant is dormant. From the seed emerges a stem, or plumule, and a primary root, or radicle. Food is stored in the seed in the endosperm (3n) or in the cotyledons.
Roots Tap vs. fiberous Adventitious
If the primary root persists, it is called a “true root” and may take the following forms: taproot - single main root with small lateral roots fibrous roots - many divided roots of +/- equal size. If the primary root dies (or even if it persists in some plants) new roots may arise from the stem. These are called adventitious roots. All roots on monocots are adventitious roots
Stems Terms for bud types and parts
At the tip of the growing shoot is a terminal bud or apical bud. A bud has bud scales surrounding it to protect the developing parts inside. Inside a bud are leaf primordia, lateral bud primordia, and the apical meristem. The apical meristem is responsible for new terminal growth.
Node Lateral bud Internode
node - point of attachment of a leaf lateral bud - always found in the axil of a leaf (between the leaf and stem, upward on the stem from the point of attachment of the leaf) internode - region of the stem between two nodes.
5 types of modified stems
rhizome - underground laterally growing stem (ginger) tuber - swollen elongate underground stem; modified rhizome (potato) bulb - underground stem with many swollen leaf bases surrounding it (onion) corm - swollen round underground stem (many flowering ‘bulbs’) stolon – ‘runner’ or rhizome above the soil (strawberry plants)
A small leaf-like structure attached to the stem at the point of attachment of the stem to the leaf
4 parts of the leaf structure
blade - the broad part of the leaf petiole - the slender part of the leaf that attaches the blade to the stem margin - the edge of the blade; may be smooth or variously shaped ribs - vascular bundles or veins in the leaf; the central one is the midrib
Types of leaf shape
blade - the broad part of the leaf petiole - the slender part of the leaf that attaches the blade to the stem margin - the edge of the blade; may be smooth or variously shaped ribs - vascular bundles or veins in the leaf; the central one is the midrib pinnate - veins arranged like “pinnae” on a feather palmate - veins arranged like fingers radiating from the ‘palm’ of your hand Leaves may be pinnately of palmately compound, however when there are three leaflets it may be impossible to tell which. In that case the leaves are called ternate.
Types of venation
- net veined - a branching, divergent and often reticulate pattern may be palmate or pinnate - parallel veined - primary veins all parallel as in grass
Types of leaf arrangement
Leaf Arrangement (attachment of leaves to stem) Alternate – one leaf per node Opposite – two leaves per node on opposite side of stem Whorled – more than two leaves per node
Complete - incomplete
Perfect - imperfect
complete - all four whorls present
incomplete - one or more whorls missing
perfect - both reproductive whorls present
imperfect - one reproductive whorl missing
Terms for fusion of parts in flowers
connate - parts of one whorl fused to each other
gamopetaly or sympetaly - fused petals
syncarpy - fused carpels
adnate - parts on one whorl fused to parts in another whorl
epipetalous stamens - stamens adnate to petals
Superior vs Inferior ovary
superior ovary – hypogynous (‘hypo-‘ means ‘under’ and refers to location of other
parts relative to the ovary
inferior ovary – epigynous (‘epi’ means ‘over’)
sometimes there is a fusion of parts at the base of the flower that makes it unclear where
the ovary is relative to the attachment of the other parts and it may appear to be
anywhere between fully superior and fully inferior this situation is called perigynous
Actinomorphic vs. Zygomorphic
Radial, regular, actinomorphic symmetry - many planes of symmetry
bilateral, irregular, zygomorphic symmetry - one plane of symmetry
What functions?
Fruit - mature ovary
- once the eggs within the ovules have been fertilized and the ovary starts to expand, it is
usually called a fruit
functions: [one or more of these may exist for same fruit]
dispersal of seed
nutrition for developing embryosprotection of seeds
prevent being eaten
Inflorescence - term for the flowering part of a plant; all of the flowers in aggregate
Infructescence - Inflorescence after flowering is over and the fruits have ripened.
Arranged in vertical rows
Where terminal flower blooms first.
Globe shaped, spherical
Like overlapping tiles
Chasmogamous - large showy flowers that typically are cross-pollinated
Cleistogamous - small inconspicuous flowers that don’t open and are self-pollinated in
the bud. Sexual repro but not out crossing.
involucre bract of Compositae
ligulate flowers
the ray flowers of Compositae (the ones with the fused petal(s))
with the petal commate, at least toward the base, gamopetalous
connate anthers
The calyx of asteraceae with narrow, linear, or scale like sepals
Seed-bearing carpels split apart, but remain indehiscent.
Eg: Apiaceae
tetradynamous - 4 long +2 short - Brassicaceae
monadelphous - filaments fused into a tube; free at end - Malvaceae
Diadelphous - 9 fused at the filaments, one free - Fabaceae (Papilionoideae)
didynamous - 2 long and 2 short - scrophulaceae
arranged in pairs along the stem and each pair is at right angles to the pair above