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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
chemoreceptors that regulate ventilation are sensitive to the levels of ?
hydrogen ions and CO2
peripheral chemoreceptors that regulate respiration/ventilation are located where?
bifurcation of the aorta and carotids
peripheral chemoreceptors that regulate respiration/ventilation are sensitive to what?
hypoxia
what is the primary muscle for ventilation?
diaphragm
Where is the respiratory center or neuronal control of autonomic respiration?
the pons & the medulla (the brainstem)
which artery provides perfusion to the pulmonary capillary bed?
the pulmonary artery
what type of cell lines the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli?
simple squamous epithelium
What does BUN measure?
the liver's ability to metabolize protein
what does serum creatinine measure?
muscle metab.
the kidneys regulate body pH by the reabsorbtion of ____ and the excretion of _____.
bicarbonate.
H ions
tea colored urine, fever, chills, dysuria, urinary urgency, temp, cvat tenderness are usually indicitive of what dx?
pyelonephritis
most reabsorbtion of glucose, AA, bicarb and electrolytes occur where?
proximal convoluted tubule
what stimulates peristalsis/ GI motility?
parasympathetic innervation
what stimulates the secretion of bile/pancreatic digestive enzymes?
CCK
what is cholangitis?
inflammation of the biliary duct
MC cause of chronic gastritis?
H.Pylori
what is the second MC cause of PUD?
NSAIDs
what distinguishes irritable bowel from inflammatory bowel disease?
alternating diarrhea/constipation
which ulcers are relieved by eating??
duodenal ulcers
P presents c palmar erythema, ascites and splenomegaly. what is the most likely dx?
cirrhosis
p presents with HA, perspiration, palptations. HTN. N/v, dyspnea, tremor and visual disturbance. Additional complaints of anxiety, weight loss. these are classic findings of what disease of the adrenal medulla?
pheochromocytoma
a tumor of the adrenal gland that causes excess release of epinephrine and norepinephrine, hormones that regulate heart rate and blood pressure
pheochromocytoma
P presents with fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hypothermia and shock. H/O cirrhosis and ascites. most likely dx?
spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
which of the inflammatory bowel diseases can commonly affect the "mouth to anus"
crohn dz
a disease that causes sharply demarcated, granulomatous lesions inbetween normal mucosal tissue (aka "skip lesions") creating a cobblestone like appearance?
crohn disease
this inflammatory bowel disease affects the submucosal layer more than the mucosal layer and therefore less bloody diarrhea is seen?
crohn disease
name the nonspecific inflammatory condition of the colon?
ulcerative colitis
the inflammatory bowel disease that is confined to the rectum and colon?
UC
this IBD affects primarily the mucosal layer
UC
what procedure is the initial study for a p that presents with IBD?
sigmoidoscopy
what are some examples of H2 blockers?
zantac (ranitidine)
tagamet (cimetidine)
what is the first line tx for esophageal reflux?
h2 blockers
what is the "mainstay therapy" for patients dx with asthma?
inhaled corticosteroids
what is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia?
pneumococcus
what is the Mechanism of action of loop/thiazide diuretics?
to reduce vascular volume
where does HCTZ work?
the distal convoluted tube
what does the JGA complex secrete in order to control GFR, renal and systemic blood flow?
renin
where are electrolytes (ie glucose, amino acids, bicarb ) secondarily reabsorbed?
loop of henle
what is the most sensitive measure of GFR?
serum and urine creatinine
intrahepatic cholestasis or jaundice is usually due to an obstruction of?
biliary tree
extrahepatic cholestasis or jaundice usually is caused by obstruction of?
the common bile duct