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46 Cards in this Set

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A GOVERNMENT'S COURSE OF ACTION DESIGNED TO PROMOTE THE WELFARE OF ITS CITIZENS
SOCIAL POLICY
ENCOMPASSES THE BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, BELIEFS, AND ALL OTHER PRODUCTS OF A PARTICULAR GROUP OF PEOPLE THAT ARE PASSED ON FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION
CULTURE
MEANING "NATION" IN GREEK. IS ROOTED IN CULTURAL HERITAGE, NATIONALITY, RACE, RELIGION, AND LANGUAGE
ETHNICITY
ANOTHER DIMENSION OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT. THIS INVOLVES THAT PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOCULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF BEING MALE OR FEMALE
GENDER
THE NUMBER OF YEARS THAT HAVE ELAPSED SINCE BIRTH.
CHRONOLOGICAL AGE
A PERSON'S AGE IN TERMS OF BIOLOGICAL HEALTH BY KNOWING THE FUNCTIONAL CAPACITIES OF A PERSON'S VITAL ORGANS. THE YOUNGER THE PERSON'S _______ ___ , THE LONGER THE PERSON IS EXPECTED TO LIVE.
BIOLOGICAL AGE
AN INDIVIDUAL'S ADAPTIVE CAPACITIES COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER INDIVIDUALS OF THE SAME CHRONOLOGICAL AGE.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AGE
THE SOCIAL ROLES AND EXPECTATIONS RELATED TO A PERSON'S AGE.
SOCIAL AGE
INVOLVES THE DEGREE TO WHICH EARLY TRAITS AND CHARACTERISTICS PERSIST THROUGH LIFE OR CHANGE.
STABILITY AND CHANGE
THE EXTENT TO WHICH DEVELOPMENT INVOLVES GRADUAL, CUMULATIVE CHANGE.
CONTINUITY
THE EXTENT TO WHICH DEVELOPMENT INVOLVES DISTINCT CHANGE.EACH PERSON IS DESCRIBED AS PASSING THROUGH A SEQUENCE OF STAGES IN WHICH CHANGE IS QUALITATIVELY RAETHER THAN QUANTITATIVELY
DISCONTINUITY
STEMS FOM A RIGOROUS, SYSTEMATIC METHOD OF INVESTIGATION.
1) CONCEPTUALIZE A PROCESS OR PROBLEM TO BE STUDIED
2)COLLECT RESEARCH INFORMATION
3)ANALYZE DATA
4)DRAW CONCLUSIONS
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
AN INTERRELATED, COHERENT SET OF IDEAS THAT HELPS TO EXPLAIN AND MAKE PREDICTIONS.
THEORY
SPECIFIC ASSUMPTIONS AND PREDICTIONS THAT CAN BE TESTED TO DETERMINE THEIR ACCURACY.
HYPOTHESIS
AIMS TO OBSERVE AND RECORD BEHAVIOR.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
THE GOAL IS TO DESCRIBE THE STRENGTH OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO OR MORE EVENTS OR CHARACTERISTICS.
CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH
THE EGO'S PROTECTIVE METHODS FOR REDUCING ANXIETY BY UNCONCIOUSLY DISTORTING REALITY.
DEFENSE MECHANISM
ERIK ERIKSON'S EIGHT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT UNFOLD AT WE GO THROUGH LIFE. EACH STAGE, A UNIQUE DEVELOPMENT TASK CONFRONTS INDIVIDUALS WITH A CRISIS THAT MUST BE RESOLVED.
PSYCHOSOCIAL
BEHAVIOR IS STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY BIOLOGY, IS TIED TO EVOLUTION, AND IS CHARACTERIZED BY CRITICAL OR SENSITVE PERIODS. KONRAD LORENZ DISCOVERED THE PROCESS OF IMPRINTING USING GOSLINGS
ETHOLOGICAL
HOLDS THAT DEVELOPMENT REFLECTS THE INFLUENCE OF SEVERAL ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS. HAS 5 SYSTEMS:
1)MICROSYSTEMS
2)MESOSYSTEMS
3)EXOSYSTEMS
4)MACROSYSTEMS
5)CHRONOSYSTEMS
ECOLOGICAL
DOES NOT FOLLOW ANY ONE THEORETICAL APPROACH BUT RATHER SELECTS FROM EACH THEORY WHATEVER IS CONSIDERED ITS BEST FEATURES.
ECLECTIC
STATES THAT CHILDREN ACTIVELY CONSTRUCT THEIR UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD AND GO THROUGH FOUR STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT:
1)SENSORIMOTOR
2)PREOPERATIONAL
3)CONCRETE OPERATIONAL
4)FORMAL OPERATIONAL
JEAN PIAGET
THE INFANT CONSTRUCHS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE WORLD BY COORDINATING SENSORY EXPERIENCES WITH PHYSICAL ACTIONS. AN INFANT PROGRESSES FROM REFLEXIVE, INSTINCTUAL ACTION AT BIRTH TO THE BEGINNING OF SYMBOLIC THOUGHT TOWARD THE END OF THE STAGE. BIRTH-2 YEARS
SENSORIMOTOR
THE CHILD BEGINS TO REPRESENT THE WORLD IWTH WORDS AND IMAGES. THESE WORDS AND IMAGES REFLECT INCREASED SYMBOLIC THINKING AND GO BEYOND THE CONNECTION OF SENSORY INFORMATION AND PHYSICAL ACTION. 2-7 YEARS
PREOPERATIONAL
THE CHILD CNA NOW REASON LOGICALLY ABOUT CONCRETE EVENTS AND CLASSIFY OBJECTS INTO DIFFERENT SETS. 7-11 YEARS
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL
THE ADOLESCENT REASONS IN MORE ABSTRACT, IDEALISTIC, AND LOGICAL WAYS. 11-ADULTHOOD
FORMAL OPERATIONAL
A SOCIOCULTERAL COGNITIVE THEORY THAT EMPHASIZES HOW CULTURE AND SOCIAL INTERACTION GUIDE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
VYGOTSKY'S THEORY
A CAREFULLY REGULATED PROCEDURE IN WHICH ONE OR MORE FACTORS BELIEVED TO INFLUENCE THE BEHAVIOR BEING STUDIED ARE MANIPULATED WHILE ALL OTHER FACTORS ARE HELD CONSTANT
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
A RESEARCH STRATEGY IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS OF DIFFERENT AGES ARE COMPARED AT ONE TIME.
CROSS-SECTIONAL APPROACH
A RESEARCH STRATEGY IN WHICH THE SAME INDIVIDUALS ARE STUDIED OVER A PERIOD OF ITME, USUALLY SEVERAL MORE YEARS.
LONGITUDINAL APPROACH
THE COMBINED CROSS-SECTIONAL, LONGITUDINAL DESIGN
SEQUENTIAL APPROACH
ALL PARTICIPANTS MUST KNOW HAT THEIR PARTICIPATION WILL INVOLVE AND WHAT RISKS MIGHT DEVELOP
INFORMED CONSENT
RESEARCHERS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR KEEPING ALL OF THE DATA THEY GATHER ON INDIVIDUALS COMPLETLY CONFIDENTIAL AND,WHEN POSSIBLE, COMPLETELY ANONYMOUS
CONFIDENTIALITY
AFTER THE STUDY HAS BEEN COMPLETED, PARTICIPANTS SHOULD BE INFORMED OF ITS PURPOSE AND THE METHODS THAT WERE USED.
DEBRIEFING
THE PSYCHOLOGIST MUSH ENSURE THAT THE _____ WILL NOT HARM THE PARTICIPANTS AND THAT THE PARTICIPANTS WILL BE TOLD THE COMPLETE NATURE OF THE STUDY AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFT ERHT STUDY
DEBRIEFING
THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS BY WHICH THOSE INDIVIDUALS OF A SPECIES THAT ARE BEST ADAPTED ARE THE ONES THAT SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE.
NATURAL SELECTION
BEHAVIOR THAT PROMOTES AN ORGANISM'S SURVIVAL IN THE NATURAL HABITAT
ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
THE IMPORTANCE OF ADAPTATION, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST IN SHAPING BEHAVIOR.
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
THREADLIKE STRUCTURES MADE UP OF DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACED, OR DNA
CHROMOSOMES
A COMPLEX MOLECULE THAT HAS A DOUBLE HELIX SHAPE, LIKE A SPIRAL STAIRCASE, AND CONTAINS GENETIC INFORMATION,
DNA
THE UNITS OF HEREDITARY INFORMATION. SHORT SEGMENTS OF DNA.
GENES
AN EGG AND SPERM FUSE TO CREATE A SINGLE CELL
FERTILIZATION
THE CELL'S NUCLEUS DUPLICATE IFTSELF AND THE CELL DIVIDES. TWO KNEW CELLS FORMED, EACH CONTAINING THE SAME DNA AS THE ORIGINAL CELL, ARRANGED IN THE SAME 23 PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES
MITOSIS
A CELL OF THE TESTES OR OVARIES DUPLICATES ITS CHROMOSOMES BUT THEN DIVIDES TWICE, THUS FORMING FOUR CELLS, EACH OF WHICH HAS ONLY HALF OF THE GENETIC MATERIAL OF THE PARENT CELL. BY THE END OF MEIOSIS, EACH EGG OR SPERM HAS 23 UNPAIRED CHROMOSOMES.
MEIOSIS
ALL OF A PERSON'S GENETIC MATERIAL
GENOTYPE
OBSERVABLE CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS.
PHENOTYPE