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35 Cards in this Set

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*study observable, measurable behaviors
*behaviors produce outcomes
*the outcome determines how often the behavior will occur in the future
*strong proponents of the power of the environment to shape behavior
behaviorism
*physiologist
-nobel prize for his research on digestion (1904)
-dogs salivated upon the sight of the lab workers who fed them
Pavlov
-a stimulus that unconditionally (naturally, automatically) triggers a response
-meat powder
unconditioned stimulus
naturally occuring response to the UCS
-salivation (after meat powder)
unconditioned response
an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with a UCS, comes to trigger a conditioned response
-Bell
conditioned stimulus
the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
-salivation (after bell)
conditioned response
-present CS repeatedly without the UCS
-the musical tone is played repeatedly with no puff of air
-gradually, the rabbit stops blinking its eye
-does not erase the association between the CS and the response
extinction
-the temporary return of an exstinguished response
-the response's exstinguished (tone is played with no subsequent air puff to the eye)
-many hours after the experiement, the rabbit hears a musical tone
-it blinks its eye
spontaneous recovery
-the extension of a conditioned response for the training stimulus to similar stimuli
-through conditioning baby hannah smiles and laughs at the title screen with dark background and white writing that precedes a funny song and cartoon on her "Marrytubbies" videotape.
-Her parents notice that she also smiles and giggles at the FBI Warning screen appearing movie videotapes.
stimulus generalization
the process of learning to respond differently to two stimuli because they produce two different outcomes
-gradually hannah stops laughing at the FBI Warning screen because the song and cartoon do not follow it
stimulus discrimination
many techniques for getting us to like certain products are also based on the principles first demonstrated by Pavlov
advertising
gave little Albert a furry white rat that he loved.. until when the rat was given to him someone who hit a steel rail and scare him and eventually he was afraid of the rat.
learning fear (little albert)
a 3 year old named Peter was ___ in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with some other stimulus that elicits a response incompatible with the unwanted response.
unlearning fear (counterconditioning)
the process of changing behavior by following a response with a reinforcement
-give a rat food for pressing a bar--rat will press bar repeatedly
operant conditioning
strengths response or makes it more likely to occur
reinforcement
a stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a physiological need; an example is food
primary reinforcer
a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing porperties through association with other reinforcers
secondary reinforcer
weakens response or makes it less likely to occur
punishment
a stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock
primary punisher
a stimulus that has acquired punishing porperties through association with other punishers
secondary punisher
a reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes strong or more likely to occur.
positive reinforcement
a reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the remocal, delay or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus, as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur.
negative reinforcement
your child whines until you give him a cookie
-if you stop giving him cookies, he will eventually stop whining
extinction
a pigeon reinforced for pecking at a picture of a circle may also peck at an oval
stimulus generalization
reinforce pigeon for pecking at circle and withhold reinforcement for pecking at oval.
stimulus discrimination
reinforcement for every response of the correct type
continuous
reinforcement following completion of a specific number of responses
fixed ratio
reinforcement for an unpredictable number of response that carries around a mean value
variable ratio
reinforcement for the first response that follows a given delay since the previous reinforcement
fixed interval
reinforcement for the first response that follows an unpreditable delay (varying around a mean value) since the previous reinforcement.
variable interval
use successice approximations
-instincitve drift
shaping
-applied behavior analysis
behavior modification
-administered inconsisently
-administered inappropriately/mindlessly
-not administered immediately
-recipient has negative reations and generalizes to entire situation
-effectiveness temporary
-does not convery information about what to do correctly
-punishment may accidentally be reinforcing
when punishment fails
given indiscriminately (not earned)
-given for activities that are already enjoyed (overjustification effect)
*intrinsic reinforcers
*extrinisic reinforcers
when reinforcement fails
learning through observation/imiatation/modeling
-bobo doll study (Bandura)
social learning