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77 Cards in this Set

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Describe the beginnings of Christianity in India
Tradition says Thomas visited Indian King, Gondophares, who sought an architect to build him a palace. Thomas offered but gave $ alotted to poor and was thrown in prison. Gondophare's brother dies, then comes back to tell of heavenly palace being built with Thomas' gifts to the poor. King and brother were both converted and Thomas moves on through India.
Recent discovery of coins confirm Gondophares and brother existed and there is evidence of a significantly early church in India. The Mar Thoma (or "Malabar") Christians look to Thomas as their founder. Pantaenus of Alexandria was 2nd century missionary to India.
The lapsed
Those who had, in one way or another, weakened under persecution, esp. of Decius.
Cyprian called synod to deal with issue: said Bishops have authority, not confessors. Novation: purity of church over forgiving love - Novationist Schism.
Confessors
Those who had stood firm under persecution and often bore the marks of torture on their bodies. Highly respected by many Christians.
Eunomianism
The complete unlikeness of the father and the son. The father and the son are not even similar.
The complete unlikeness of the father and the son. The father and the son are not even similar.
Eunomianism
Novation
Rival bishop of Rome - mid 3rd cent. Demanded that Christians who had apostosized during the Decian persecution should not be welcomed back into the church. Battle with Cyprian at synod called by the same, who said that there should be no separation or baptism outside of the "true" church and that Bishops should have authority to carefully restore the lapsed. Cyprian also believed that the sacraments must have a worthy administrator.
Describe geographic spread of church in the first three centuries.
To the west: By end of 1st century: eastern Mediterranean/Asia Minor was "bible belt"
By 185: Gaul, Germania, Spain, and N. Africa.
2. To the East: India (Thomas from Jerusalem, Pantaenus from Alexandria) and Syria to Edessa to Arbela to Persia to Bactria.
Jewish Persecution of Christians
Paul appeals to Caeser for fair trial.
Roman persecution of Chrisians
From about 60's to 320's
What ended Roman persecution of Christians
311 - Edict of Galerius
313 Edict of Milan
Scattered persecutions continued until Constantine became sole emporer.
Persecutions under Nero
60's
Peter and Paul
60's persecutions
Nero
Peter and Paul
Peter and Paul martyred
60's under Nero
Persecutions under Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian
Late 1st, Early 2nd
Ignatius
Late 1st, Early 2nd persecutions
Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian
Ignatius
Ignatius martyred
Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian
Late 1st/early 2nd
Mid 2nd Persecutions
Antonius Pius/Marcus Aurelius
Polycarp and Justin Martyr
Persecutions under Antonius Pius/Marcus Aurelius
Polycarp and Justin Martyr
Mid 2nd Persecutions
Polycarp and Justin Martyr martyred
Antonius Pius/Marcus Aurelius
Mid 2nd Persecutions
Early 3rd Persecutions
Septimius Severus
Leonidas (Origen's father)
Perpetua & Felicitas
Persecutions under Septimius Severus
Leonidas (Origen's father)
Perpetua & Felicitas
Early 3rd
First time of peace from persecutions
Between early 3rd (Septimius Severus) and Mid 3rd ( Decius and Valerian)
Mid 3rd Persecutions
Decius and Valerian
Origen tortured and Cyprian martyrd
Origen tortured and Cyprian martyrd
Decius and Valerian
Mid 3rd Persecutions
Decius and Valerian
Mid 3rd Persecutions
Origen tortured and Cyprian martyrd
Between Mid 3rd (Decius and Valerian) and Early 4th (Diocletian)
Second time of peace
Early 4th persecutions
Diocletian
40 Martyrs of Sebaste
Diocletian Persecutions
Early 4th
40 Martyrs of Sebaste
40 Martyrs of Sebaste
Diocletian Persecutions
Early 4th
What factors led to the formation of the NT canon?
1. Emergence of heresies necessitated.
2. Idea of canonical books inherited from Jews.
3. 367 Athenasius drew up final list. Selection was based on External (was this written by apostles or someone in their company) and Internal (does this agree with what we already know to be the true Word of God?) evidences.
Athanasius closed the canon of scripture in the year
367
367
The year in which Athanasius closed the canon of scripture.
Outline the development of the Apostle's Creed
1. Grew out of questions, typically asked in Trinitarian form, which were put to new converts at their baptism.
2. Response to heresies, probably developed around the year 150.
3. Especially directed against Marcion and the Gnostics: God reigns over ALL, including the material world; Christ is truely God's son, and was really born, etc.
Grew out of questions, typically asked in Trinitarian form, which were put to new converts at their baptism.
The Apostle's Creed
Response to heresies, probably developed around the year 150.
The Apostle's Creed
Especially directed against Marcion and the Gnostics: God reigns over ALL, including the material world; Christ is truely God's son, and was really born, etc.
The Apostle's Creed
Describe the evolution of church government in the first three or four centuries.
1. N.T. and 1st Century: two-fold order, Elders and Deacons
2. By early 2nd century: Three-fold order, Bishops above, Elders and Deacons below. The office of bishop probably arose from the ranks of the Presbyters (church leaders within individual cities.)
Late 2nd century: we see the added idea of apostolic succession and the emergence of monarchial bishops.
Why church government?
Dfficiency and Orthodoxy
When were Bishops added to heiarchy of government, above Eleders and Deacons?
Early 2nd Century
When was the idea of apostolic succession for bishops added in the church heiarchy?
Late 2nd Century
Who were the Apologists
A number of 1st and 2nd century Christian writers who worked to commend the faith to the inquirer and demonstrated the falsity of both Judaism and polytheism.
When did the Apologists live?
1st and 2nd centuries
Summarize the Apologists arguements
Person of Christ was usually the central difficulty to antagonists. To Jews, the appologists often appealed to OT. To Pagans, they often used the doctrine of the Logos - concept common to both Platonism and Christianity. Justin Martyr - to Jews (with personal testimony and witness of OT) then Pagans (Logos); Clement of Alexandria and Origen (Christians also should see truth in Logos); Tertullian ("What has Athens to do with Jerusalem" and "I believe because it is absurd.")
Five primary centers of Christianity in the East
Jerusalem, Caesarea, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople
Primary center of Christianity in the West
Rome
Vincent's Rule
5th Century
The catholic faith is that which is believed "everywhere, always, and by all"
ecumenicity/antiquity/consent of the faithful
Problems with Vincents rule
1. Historical Problem: it hasn't been true
2. Theological problem: universality isn't always guardian of the truth
The means the church used to organize and protect itself
canons, creeds, and bishops
canons, creeds, and bishops
The means the church used to organize and protect itself
Reasons for Roman persecution of Christians
1) Charges of incest, cannibalism, lack of patriotism, hatred of human race, causation of disaster, novelty, etc.
2) refusal to worship the emporer
3) the very name of Christ (1 Peter 4:16)
Neoplatonism
A philosophy with religios overtones with the goal of ecstasy achieved through study, discipline, and mystical contemplation. It seeks to reach the ineffable ONE, the source of all being. "Evil" is simly further away from the ONE.
Septimius Severus
3rd cent Emperor
Outlawed conversions
Promoted syncretism under Sol Invictus, the unconquered sun, who reigned over all.
202 - Edict of Septimius Severus: outlawed conversion to Christianity
Martyrs: Origen's father (Leonidas), Perpetua and Felicitas.
202
Edict of Septimius Severus: outlawed conversion to Christianity
Edict of Septimius Severus
202 - outlawed conversion to Christianity
Diocletian
4th century emporer
Last and worst persecution
Expelled all Christians from military.
303 edict - removed all Christians form positions of responsibility. Churches and writings burned. All Christians must sacrifice to gods. Torture/killings.
303
Edict of Dicocletian - removed all Christians form positions of responsibility. Churches and writings burned. All Christians must sacrifice to gods. Torture/killings.
311
Edict of Garerius - issued on death bed - to end persecution of Christians.
Edict of Garerius - issued on death bed - to end persecution of Christians.
311
Alexandrian Christology
Emphasized spiritual/divine nature of Christ
Christology that Emphasized spiritual/divine nature of Christ
Alexandrian Christology
Antiochan Christology
Christology that emphasized the human nature of Christ.
Christology that emphasized the human nature of Christ.
Antiochan Christology
Decius
3rd century emporer who wanted to restore worship of the ancient gods in order to restore Rome to her ancient glory. Wanted to create Christian apostates rather than martyrs. Required certificates certifying that individuals had sacrificed to gods. First systematic empire-wide persecution of Christians: lasted 18 months. Origen tortured. Emergence of "confessors."
3rd century emporer who wanted to restore worship of the ancient gods in order to restore Rome to her ancient glory.
Decius
Wanted to create Christian apostates rather than martyrs.
Decius
Required certificates certifying that individuals had sacrificed to gods.
Decius
First systematic empire-wide persecution of Christians: lasted 18 months.
Decius
Origen tortured. Emergence of "confessors."
Decius
Tatian
2nd cent Eastern (an Assyrian who moved to Rome) apologist and gnostic.
Asia's first theologian - wrote first harmony of the gospels. Pupil of Justin Martyr. Wrote "Address to the Greeks" Had only mockery and contempt for Pagan Philosophy. Extreme Ascetic.
Wrote Diatessaron (life of Christ compiled form the four gospels) - used as a liturgical book in the Syrian Church until the 5th century
2nd cent Eastern (an Assyrian who moved to Rome) apologist and gnostic.
Tatian
Asia's first theologian.
Tatian
Wrote first harmony of the gospels.
Tatian
Had only mockery and contempt for Pagan Philosophy.
Tatian
Wrote Diatessaron (life of Christ compiled form the four gospels) - used as a liturgical book in the Syrian Church until the 5th century
Tatian
Compare and contrast Clement of Alexandria (and Origen) with Justin Martyr
Both: Christ revealed in Word/Logos. Philosophers AND prophets received whatever truth they had from this Logos. BUT:
Justin: used doctrine of Logos to show pagans the truth of Christianity while
Clement of Alexandria (and Origen): used doctrine of the Logos to call Christians to be open to the truths in philosophy.
Recite The Apostles Creed
I believe in God, the Father Almighty,
the Creator of heaven and earth,
and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord:

Who was conceived of the Holy Spirit,
born of the Virgin Mary,
suffered under Pontius Pilate,
was crucified, died, and was buried.

He descended into hell.
The third day He arose again from the dead.

He ascended into heaven
and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty,
whence He shall come to judge the living and the dead.

I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy *catholic church,
the communion of saints,
the forgiveness of sins,
the resurrection of the body,
and life everlasting.
Recite The Nicaene Creed
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made.

Who, for us men for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried; and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end.

And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceeds from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets.

And I believe one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.