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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name 2 reasons to use botox.
1-to fix dystonias
2- Alzheimers
What are 2 drugs used to slow down alzheimer's. These can obviously cross the BBB.
1- galanthamine
2- rivastigmine
Which type of channel is required for an all-or-none transmission in the sympathetic post-ganglion nerve. what channel does this channel then open?
Na-channel -------> Ca channel
____ transport takes place in the storage of NE in the granules.
active, but the concentration in the granules is higher than in the cytoplasm.
What 2 enzymes are responsible for destroying NE?
1- Monoamineoxidases (MAO)
2- catechol-o-methyltransferase
The highest concentration of COMT is found in the _____.
How is 70-80% of the NE released into the cleft removed?
It is taken back up into the outer terminal membrane.
What are 2 drugs that inhibit NE from being taken back up in the nerve terminal?
1- cocaine
2- tricyclic antidepressants
Describe the purpose and the mechanism of the auto-receptor of NE.
It regulates it's own release. When NE binds it causes cAMP to form and open K channels--this causes hyperpolarization. B/c of this Ca channels wont open and thus the nerve-induced release of NE doesnt happen.
What is the name of the NE auto-receptor?
Which is more potent...Phenylephrine or NE/epi?
The ______ mechanism plays a role in modulating HR, SAP, and PR
systole represents ______ of the ventricles.
T or F; Systolic pressure increases MORE that dyastole in response to NE binding?
NE binds to ____ receptors causing and ____ in peripheral resistance.
alpha-1, increase
ALERT: NE binding to B-1 receptors in the heart causes ______. WHY?
BRADYcardia, b/c the baroreceptor mechanism kicks in.
Where are the baroreceptors?
aortic arch and carotid artery
Even though the bradycardia from NE happens due to the baroreceptor mechanism--what specifically happens?
The increase in PR causes the baroreceptors to be extra sensitive and this causes increased autonomic conduction through the vagus nerve delivering Ach to the SA node
What effect does NE have on PR and blood pressure?
increases both
What effect does epi. have on PR. What receptors are epi. binding to in the blood vessels.
LOWERS PR, B-2 receptors
EPi. causes ______ which is a _____ in heart rate.
tachycardia, increase (different from NE)
Isoproterenol is _____, and act on __ receptors.
nonselective, Beta
Which gives you a greater rise in HR? epi, or isoproterenol?
isoproterenol (direct B-1 effect)
Phenylephrine is specific for _____.
Phenylephrine causes ______ due to the baroreceptor mechanism.
bradycardia (same as NE)
NE causes an ______ in SAP, and a ______ of pulse pressure.
increase, widening
In Epi, there is a ______ n diastole and a _____ of the pulse pressure similiar to the use of NE.
slight drop, widening
Isproterenol has the same effects as ________ on SAP. Explain it.
epi. slight drop in diastole, widening of pulse pressure
Explain the changes in SAP with the use of phenylephrine. it causes a ____ in PR.
Systole and diastole rise together-- so no widening of the pulse pressure (the only one), phenylephrine causes a rise in PR.
Phenylephrine is most popularly use for _____.
nasal decongestion
Phenylephrine promotes ______(in blood vessels) and is use with a local anesthetic.
Clonidine is an ______ used in the _____ to reduce sympathetic outflow out into the periphery.
alpha-2 agonist, CNS
______ is an alpha-2 agonist used in the CNS.
Use Clonidine if the patient is _______.
______ is a B-agonist and can be used to treat cardiac decompensation.
Dobutamine is a _____.
T or F: prolonged use of Dobutamine will cause down-regulation of B receptors.
Name 2 B-2-selective agonists. Can these bind to B-1 at higher concentrations?
1- terbutaline
2- albuterol
What are the B-2 selective agonist a first line of therapy for?
Asthma, emphesema, bronchospasm
What are 5 side-effects assoiciated with the use of B-2 agonists?
1- nervousness
3- tachycardia
5- tremor
What other drug can be used to treat asthma (besides albuterol)? Can you use them together?
Ipratropium (antimuscarinic)
Do alpha blocking agents have any affinity for B-receptors?
_______ is a highly-selective, reversible alpha-antagonist used to treat HTN and benign prostatic hypertrophy.
Prazosin is an _____ and is used to treat ___ and ___.
alpha-antagonist, HTN and benign prostatic hypertrophy
______ are used to treat HTN.
Name 7 clinical uses for a B-blocker.
1- antihypertensive
2- antiarrhythmic
3- antianginal
4- hyperthyroidism
5- open-angle glaucoma
6- anxiety
What is a B-blocker doing when it controls angina?
it is reducing the myocardial oxygen demand. (the person cant really do any moderate exercise anymore)
A B-blocker will control the _____ (heart rate) associated with hyperthyroidism.
______ is the eye drop that blocks the B-receptor responsible for aqueous humor production.
Timolol can be used to treat _____.
open angle glaucoma
Performing artists can take a ___ to control anxiety and tremor.
Name 5 B-antagonists (blockers)
1- propanolol
Which B- blocker causes the most CNS side-effects? If it goes into the CNS--this means it is ______.
propanolol, lipophilic
Which 2 B-blockers are specific for B-1?
1-atenolol and metoprolol
Which 2 B-blockers when given at HIGH doses also has alpha-1 affinity?
2- carvedilol
______ is given for crisis HTN.
What happens when you abruptly withdrawal the B-blocker therapy.
supersensitivity b/c receptor upregulation
What is the usual warning sign to a diabetic that their sugar is too low (hypoglycemic)? How is this affected with a B-blocker>
the B-blocker will stop tachycardia
What are 3 side-effects assoiscated with propranolol?
3- hallucinations