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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
disturbances in emotions that cause personal discomfort
mood disorders
include sadness, unhappiness, "blue mood" anbd apathy
affective symptoms of depression
feelings of pessimism, loss of interest and motivation, idea of guilt, difficulty in concentration and making decisions
cognitive symptoms of depression
include neglect of personal appearance, psychomotor retardation, agitation and suicide gestures.
behavioral symptoms
include loss or gain of appetite and weight, constipation, sleep disturbance and loss of sexual desire.
physiological symptoms
elevated, expansive or irritable mood.
impairment of social and occupational functioning.
pressured and accelerated speech.
decreased need for sleep with high level or arousal.
symptoms of mania
the main symptoms are low-grade depressed mood. feelings of pessimism or guilt, loss of interest of chronic nature lasting over years.
dysthymic disorder
a persistement and chronic mood disorder in the form of mood swings
seasonal changes and post-partum depression
course specifiers
stress and depression
gender and depression
sociocultural explanation
separation and anger as the causes of depression. loss thru separation or death is crucial. anger stems from feelings of being deserted or abandoned. anger turned toward the self causes depression
psychoanalytic explination
separation or loss of a significant other, causing reduced reinforcement is important in depresion. reduction in environmental reinforcement is another important contributor. there is a need to replace lost reinforcements. patients need to learn social behaviors that can elicit positive reinforcements.
learning explanation
low self esteem is related to depresion. ___ feels depression is a disturbance of thinking rather than mood. Patients have schemas that set them up for depression.
cognitive explination
___ States that feelings of helplessness are learned which happens when one's acions have no effect on the environment as a result of which passiity and depression occur. attributional styles can be optimistic or pessimistic. depressed persons make depressie attributions.
learned helplessness.
block the reuptake of nor-epinephrine by the nerve cells.
tricyclic antidepressants
also increase the level of nor-epinephrine in the brain synapses.
monoamine oxidase (mao) inhibitors
ECT is reserved for the patients with severe unipolar depression who do not respond to tricyclics or MAO inhibitors
Electroconvulsive therapy
cognitie therapists believe that distorted thougts cause psychological problems and changing them can eliminate depression. teaching parents to replace illogical thoughts with positive and logical thoughts is the aim of the method. the patient is encouraged to take part in positive activities and to attend social skills programs.
psychotherapy and behavior treatment for depressie disorder
drugs , especially ___ are used. ___is the treatment of choice for ___ patients. ___ decreases the total leel of neurotransmitters in the synaptic areas by inceasing the reuptake of nor-epinephrine into the nerve cells.
biomedical treatment for bipolar (manic-depressive) disorders