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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was wood type used for?
Wood type was used for the printing of
posters because it was lighter at very large sizes than lead type would have been.
When was rag paper invented?
Rag paper was invented in ancient China,
and came to Europe in 1100 AD, when craftsmen from China were imported to Italy.
What was the Capitalis Quadrata?
A formal lettering style used in stone
engravings that used all capitals and included serifs.
What is Rustica?
Rustica was a condensed form of lettering in ancient
Rome, in about 500 BC.
A form of lettering in which the emphasis
was placed on letters interacting and using different variations of the same
letter on page.
Who is responsible for the move away from Black Letter Textura as the
primary printing font?
Jenson’s Roman font replaced Gothic fonts in popularity n
what is now France and Italy.
Who designed the first italic type?
Francesco Griffo working for Aldus
Manutius developed the first italic type, which used Roman capitals.
What is a monospaced font?
A font in which all of the characters are
allotted the same space; to accomplish this, wide characters were squished and
thin characters had their serifs extended; Pica was a monospaced font used for
early manual typewriters.
Who printed the first book in English?
William Caxton printed the first
book in English.
Who designed the first sans serif font?
William Caslon IV designed the
first sans serif font which was very unpopular and termed grotesque.
What is Post-Modern type design?
Post-modern design is design which
takes elements from any preceding fonts and incorporates it into the font;
sometimes two or more fonts are combined to make a new post-modern font.
From what line(s) is leading measured?
Leading is measured from baseline
to baseline.
Why is leading measured this way?
Measuring this way allows the space
for the type plus the leading to be measured.
What kinds of characters do you have to pay special attention to when
Angled capital letters or letters with an overhang have special
kerning considerations.
What are kerning pairs?
They are pairs of letters that need to be kerned
a bit tighter and should replace those letter combinations in fonts.
Which helps readability more, increased point size or increased leading?
Increased leading will help readability more than increased point size,
because the additional leading prevent reader retracking on lines of type.
What is the rule of thumb for spacing between words in a headline?
Word spaces are generally accepted to be the width of a lowercse l.
Which is easier to read, all uppercase, or upper and lower, and why?
Upper and lowercase is easier to read because the ascenders and descenders give
words a more unique shape than does all caps which are all the same height.
What is negative leading, and when is it used?
Negative leading is when
the point size of the leading is smaller than the point size of the type, and
it is used in headlines.
What is phrasing in a headline?
Phrasing means adding line breaks so
that the words on a line still make sense when read with a pause at each line
What do you have to do to parentheses, bullets and dashes in headlines
and why?
These have to be baseline shifted up if the headline is in all
capitals because they are designed to center on the x-height and descenders; and
they will look too low.
What is reversed type?
White type on a black background.
What type do you NOT want to reverse and why?
Any very fine font, such
as scripts, fine serifed fonts, very thin stroked sans serif fonts.
What is optical alignment?
Optical alignment is when the left edge of
the lines of type are aligned optically (based on the shapes of the characters)
rather than simply mechanically aligned.
What is hanging punctuation?
Hanging punctuation is placed to the left
of the flush left headline; this is preferable to inset, flush punctuation.
What do you do to punctuation in headlines?
Punctuation in headlines has
to be reduced in size because it is designed for maximum readability at very
small point sizes.
What are optical adjustments to fonts?
Adjustments that type designers
make to make the weights and sizes of letters and strokes look balanced to the
human eye.
What do type designers do to the horizontal strokes of letters?
designers make the horizontal strokes of letters thinner to compensate for way
the human eye perceives horizontals as thicker.
How is the size of square, circular and pointed characters different,
and why?
Pointed and circular characters have to be designed a little larger
than their square counterparts because they only touch the cap line and baseline
in small area and would otherwise appear undersized.
What do type designers do when two strokes come together, and why?
two strokes come together type designers taper them so that the junction
doesn’t appear too heavy.
What did type designers do to the corners of letters for
photocomposition, and why?
For photocomposition type designers pinched the inner and outer
corners of letters to allow light to get into the negative and create crisp,
square corners when developed.
What is the difference between computer bold and true bold type?
Computer bolded type bolds all strokes equally, while designed bold type
bolds the vertical strokes more than the horizontals.
What is the difference between computer obliqued and true italic type?
Computer obliqued type simply slants the roman version of the font, whereas
designed italic uses a different drawing of many letters, giving a loop to the
top arm of the lowercase k, adding hooked finials to the terminals of the i,
t, l, d, b and p. It also give the f a graceful descender.
What is the difference between computer condensed and true condensed
Computer condensed type condenses the vertical strokes and thickens the
horizontals; true condensed type maintains the weight relationship of the strokes
but designs more narrow characters.
What is the difference between computer extended and true extended type?
Computer extended type thickens the vertical strokes too much and thins the
horizontals too much, whereas true extended type maintains the weight
relationships of the original font, but has redesigned the characters wider.
What is the difference between computer small caps and true small caps
Computer small caps just puts caps at 75% size for small caps, but the
stroke weights of the caps are much heavier than the reduced small computer
caps; the true small caps are 75% in height of the full caps but have been
designed with a heavier stroke weight to visually balance the strokes weight of the
full sized caps.
What is the difference between old style and lining or ranging figures?
Oldstyle figures are not consistent heights, some have ascenders, some have
descenders; in lining figures all the numbers are the same height from baseline
to capline.
What did type designers do to make type more legible at small point
sizes for text type?
For greater legibility of text type, type designers made
the x-height larger so that the letters appeared larger.
What is a family of type?
A family of type is all of the weights,
italics, condensed and extended versions of a font, i.e.. The Garamond family
includes AL the Garamond weights such as bold, book, light, and all the italics and
condensed and extended versions.
What is a typeface?
A typeface is the unique design of the letters,
upper and lowercase and the numbers of the alphabet.
What is a typestyle?
A typestyle is any one of the weights or the roman
or italic versions of a font.
What makes up a font?
A font is comprised of the upper and lowercase
letters of the alphabet, the numbers, all the accented characters, the
punctuation marks, mathematical symbols, the phonetic symbols, the monetary symbols, the
fractions, ligatures, dingbats, superior and inferior characters, and small
What are superscripts?
Superscripts are the small raised numbers that
indicate exponents.
What are subscripts?
Subscripts are small numbers placed below the
baseline to indicate chemical compounds.
When do you use a family of type?
Designers use a family of type to
promote consistency yet create typographic hierarchy and rhythm within the same
When d you design with just two families of fonts, and what should those
families be?
When designing an editorial piece, you should limit your font
selection to one serif and one sans serif font family.
What is legibility?
Legibility is the ability to discern or recognize
the characters of a specific font.
What is readability?
Readability is the spacing of the font, such as the
tracking, leading, line length and the selection of the font.
What should you be aware of when deciding on line length?
When deciding
on line length, remember that the longer the line length the larger the point
size should be and the more open the leading should be to prevent re-reading
of the same line.
What should you be aware of when deciding on point size?
When deciding
on point size, you need to consider the x-height of the font as well as the
line length and the space for leading.
What should you be aware of when deciding on leading?
When deciding on
leading remember that the longer the line length, the more leading is needed,
and remember that additional leading makes text more readable than additional
text point size.
What should you be aware of when deciding on a font?
When deciding on a
font, consider the legibility of the font, who the audience is, the available
light, the x-height of the font, and the space available for leading.
What should you be aware of when deciding on tracking?
When deciding on
tracking, remember that tight tracking makes word groups easier to read, also
consider the point size and x-height and the condensed nature of the font.
What should you be aware of when deciding on the alignment of your type?
When deciding on the alignment of type, consider the proximity of the text to
an image, how long the selection of type is, and the font and x-height that
the font you will be setting.
What should you be aware of when deciding on the width of your alleys on
a page?
The width of the alleys on your page should feel comfortable in
relation to the width of the columns, and should be wide enough that there is no
chance of the reader jumping across columns accidentally, they should also be in
proportion to the width of the page itself.
What does it mean to match type with the message?
Matching the type
with message means selecting a font that has the appropriate connotation for the
meaning behind the headline.
What does appropriateness of font mean?
The appropriateness of a font
means that the font selection is well chosen for the context, the audience, the
sponsor, etc.
What is meant by the resonance of a font?
The resonance of a font is the
associations that people have with a font because of the culture they grew up
in, and how they have seen that or similar fonts used.
What is meant by the denotation of a font?
The denotation of a font is
the definition of the structural characteristics of the font, such as stroke
weight, terminals, bracketing, etc.
What is meant by the connotation of a font?
The connotation of a font is
the feeling or associations that a specific person has with the font.
What is a sidebar?
A sidebar is text that is related to the main text,
but that is set off in a separate box or area on the page; it often goes into
greater depth on a topic mentioned in the main text.
What is a pull quote?
A pull quote is text from the article that is
enlarged and set off typographically in a box to get the reader’s interest.
What is a callout?
A callout is a word that is bold or italic and then
is followed by a definition or explanation.
What is a caption?
A caption is a short phrase that describes the contents of a photo.
What is the dateline?
A dateline is a line of text that contains the date of the publication, and sometimes the day of the week and name of the publication and volume as well.
What is an image credit?
An image credit is the name of the creator of a
photo or art in a publication.
What is a byline?
A byline is a line of text that credits the author of
an article.
How many spaces at the end of a sentence in body copy, and why?
In body
copy, only one space is necessary at the end of sentence, because the
two-space rule was developed for typewriter fonts, which are monospaced and need the
extra space for separation. With computer fonts, most of which are variable
spaced, the rule is ONE space after a period.
What is the foot space on a page?
The foot space is the bottom margin
of the page, often it contains the dateline.
What is the head space on a page?
The headspace is the top margin of the
page, often it contains the title of the publication and sometimes the title
of the chapter.
What are running headers or footers on the page?
Running footers are
when a line of type is repeated in the foot space of every page.
What are alleys on a page?
The alleys on the page are the area that run
vertically between columns of adjacent type.
What is the gutter?
The gutter is the space on either side of the center
of the spread, where the piece is bound together.
What are the margins?
The margins are the areas around the edges of the
pages where there is no text.
What is thumb space?
Thumb space is the left and right edge margins that
allow space for the piece to be held.
What is an initial cap?
An initial cap is when the first letter is an
enlarged capital of the same or a contrasting font from the text, that induces
the reader to read the article.
What is a dropped cap?
A dropped cap is when an initial cap drops two or
more lines into the text.
What is a stand-up cap?
A stand-up cap is when the initial cap base
aligns with the first line of text, and stands up higher than the text in the
first line.
What is an inset cap?
An inset cap is when the top of the initial cap is
flush with the top of the text in the first line.
What is an hanging cap?
An hanging cap is when the initial cap is set
next to the text in the left margin; it can be flush with the top of the first
line of text, or flow above the first line of text.
What is a dropped shadow, and why are they used in type?
A dropped
shadow is when the text has a gray or light colored repeat of the letters that is
offset slightly. Stroked characters and dropped shadows are used extensively in
package design.