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49 Cards in this Set

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What is kerning?
Kerning is the tightening of letterspacing between letters in a word to improve the readability and make the spacing consistent.
What is a ligature?
A ligature is the connecting of two letters, often serifs to improve readability and spacing.
What is mortising?
Mortising is the stepping of lines of type next to an angled capital along the edge of the A, V or W for example.
List three features of an Old Style font:
Little contrast between stem
and hairline strokes; heavily bracketed, rounded serifs, oblique stress to
characters, often cupped serifs.
List three features of an Egyptian font:
Little contrast between stem and
hairline strokes; large body height of lowercase letters; thick squarish slab
serifs.
List three features of Transitional font:
Strong thick and thin contrast
between stem and hairline strokes; finely bracketed, pointed serifs, almost
vertical stress, short wide lowercase.
List three features of a Modern font:
Extreme contrast between thick and
thin in weight of stem and hairline strokes; No bracketing of serifs; strong
vertical stress; small body height of lowercase letters.
List three features of a Sans serif font:
No serifs; little stress
optical even weight to strokes; large body height; often squared-off terminals
List three kinds of Decorative fonts:
Scripts, rustic, historic faces, illuminated initials, circus faces, western faces, techno faces, computer adjusted faces.
How is type measured?
From what line to what line? In points, from
ascender line to descender line.
What is the x-height of type?
The height of the body of the lowercase
characters, measured from waistline to baseline.
What determines the visual appearance of the size of type?
The x-height
determines the visual appearance of type—especially when at text type sizes.
How many points are in an inch?
72 points in an inch
How many points in a pica?
12 points in a pica
How many Picas in an inch?
6 picas in an inch
How can you tell which program a document was made in?
The icon of the
document resembles the icon of the program it was created in.
What key(s) on the keyboard activate the OK button when it has a dark
outline around it?
The enter or return keys activate the OK button
How do you change whether the folder is shown in names or icons?
Go under
View and drag down to as Icons or as List or as Buttons.
What is the difference between closing and quitting a program?
Closing a
program just closes the current document you’re working on (but program keeps
running in the background) ; quitting a program removes it from RAM.
Why do you check the Finder when you walk up to a computer?
You check the
Finder to make sure that there are no unwanted programs running; which could
slow down the processing of the computer.
How do you change the color of type in Quark?
Highlight the type with the
Content Tool, get the Color Palette down, make sure that the A at the top of
the Color Palette is selected and choose a color.
How do you get the Toolbar to show up if it’s not showing?
Hit the F8
button.
What does the Content Tool look like in Quark?
Content Tool looks like a
hand a cursor—used for working in boxes.
What does the Item Tool look like in Quark?
Item tool looks like arrows
pointing in four directions, used for moving boxes, lines, etc. in Quark.
How do the Item and Content tools differ?
Item Tool moves things,
Contents Tool changes things inside boxes.
What is the Measurements Palette in Quark?
The Measurements Palette is a
box that gives the parameters and features that can be edited of the box, line
or type that is selected.
Why does the Measurements Palette change depending on the tool that you
have selected?
The Measurement Palette changes so that you can see and change
either the length or the point size or the angles of the line or the type or
the box, etc.
How do you know whether you’re in a program on the computer?
Look up at
the finder to see if the logo of the program is up there.
Is considered the founder of the Arts & Crafts Movement,
he also designed fonts, such as Golden, Chaucer and Troy, as well as all kinds
of home furnishings, wallpaper and fabrics.
William Morris
Accomplished calligrapher, who designed over two hundred
fonts, including Palatino, Melior and Optima.
Hermann Zapf
Graphic designer responsible for Mother & Child logo; also
designed Avant Garde font after the nameplate he designed of a magazine by the
same name; and Lubalin Graph.
Herb Lubalin
Designer of the font Futura
Paul Renner
Corporate designer and font designer of over 500 fonts,
including Benguiat, Panache, Benguiat Gothic, and Korinna.
Ed Benguiat
Designed the fonts Neuland and Kabel.
Rudolf Koch:
Originally a stone carver who designed the font Gill Sans,
Johanna, and Bunyan.
Eric Gill:
Founder of the Village Press and designer of over 122
fonts including Goudy Oldstyle.
Frederic Goudy:
Designed the font Novarese
Aldo Novarese:
An illustrator who designed the fonts Artone, Blimp,
Filmsense, Myopic that embodied the aesthetics of the sixties.
Seymour Chwast:
Worked cooperatively to design the font Times New
Roman for the Times of London.
Stanley Morrison:
What is the significance of the Linotype machine?
Mergenthaler’s
linotype machine increased the speed of typesetting tenfold, allowed typesetters to
use a keyboard to set type rather than setting each piece of type by hand.
What is the difference between Hot & Cold Type?
Hot type is type that
uses heat to cast the letters from metal; Cold type is type that is created
using negatives, lenses for enlargement and photosensitive paper.
Art and design style developed around the era in the late
1800’s during the reign of Queen Victoria of England who took the throne at
eighteen in 1837 and ruled for 64 years until 1901. Type in this style is known
for lavish ornamentation, decorative curlicues and natural elements.
Victorian Art:
founded by William Morris as a reaction against
the shoddy product design and materials used in industrial revolution
production. The artists of this movement strove to return to hand crafting goods from
fine quality materials. Morris founded Kelmscott Press which printed large
editions of historical texts is a style reminiscent of Gothic book design.
Arts & Crafts movement:
glorification of female beauty married with the interlacing natural ornamentation from Victorian art with a sense of symmetry. Type in this style had sinewy, graceful curving tructure.
Art Nouveau:
German art school closed by the Nazis because it was not
traditional enough in style; “form follows function” and “less is more” is their
philosophy; perhaps a reaction against the overly ornate Art Nouveau and
Victorian styles. Believed that fine objects of superior design and quality
materials could be mass produced for large markets. Herbert Bayer created Universal, a
font that tried to fuse upper and lowercase letters into one.
Bauhaus:
Zurich based art movement post WWI that believed that art was
dead, that everything was art, challenged the notion of beauty as a requisite
component of art, DuChamp created ready mades from found objects and put them in
art museums. type designers placed the different sizes of lead type on the
press bed at varying angles, and without the intent to spell or communicate.
Dada:
artform based in the Netherlands a geometric based art that was
rooted in right angles, rectangles, grid lines, etc. Mondrian was a noted
painter in this style. Theo vanDoesburg created an Alphabet in this style, which
omitted all curves and angles in the letters.
DeStijl:
Russian art form after the Bolshevik revolution that
produced art for the people such as posters and magazines rather than paintings
and sculpture. Style often includes radiating objects from a central point, use
of geometric shapes and type elements placed on diagonals with circles and
angled shapes.
Constructivism:
conflation or pastiche of a variety of elements from
prior art movements of different eras to create a new collage of art styles in
one font.
Post-Modernism: