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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Phenothiazine
1. What is it
2. 2 kinds
traditional antipsychotic
1. Most prescribed neuroleptic to control positive symptoms

2. Includes chlorpromazine (aka Thorazine) and Fluphenazine (aka Prolixin or Permitil)
What's bad about Haloperidol
Haldol
Most severe extrapyrimidal symptoms
NMS- Nauroleptic malignant syndrome
1. SE of antipsychotics
Rapid onset of motor, mental, and autonomic symptoms, like muscle rigidity, tachycardia, hyperthermia, and altered consciousness
2. FATAL if drugs aren't immediately stopped
Tardive Dyskenesia
1. What is it
2. Who gets it
3. What's it similar to
4. What alleviates it
1. Extrapyramidal SE
2. More common in females and elderly
3. Similar to Huntingtons
4. Alleviated by giving a benzo
Huntingtons Chorea
Involuntary jerky movements of the face, arms and trunk
Symptoms look like TD
Resperidone
1. What is it
2. Problem
1. Popular atypical antipsychotic
2. Slower onset than traditional antipsychotics
TCA's
1. How do they work
2. What depression symptoms do they treat?
3. What are other uses (5)
1. Block the reuptake of norepinephrine, dopamine and/or serotonin at the nerve synapses
2. Vegetative and somatic symptoms of depression - weight loss, sleep disturbances,etc.
3. Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, OCD, Bulimia and enuresis
Atypical antipsychotics
1. What do they do?
2. How
3. Why better than TCAs
1.Treat positive and negative schizophrenia
2. Block dopamine (especially D4)and serotonin

3. No TD, less EPS
Anticholinergic SEs
1. What are they
2. How long does tolerance take?
1. Blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation, dry mouth, sexual dysfunction, confusion
2. Tolerance within a few weeks to months
What are Olanzepine, Respiridone and Quietapine?
Atypical antipsychotics
Clozapine
1. What is it
2. How does it work
3. Other uses (3)
1. Clozaril
Atypical antipsychotic
2. Acts on D4 and other dopamine receptors
3. Alcohol/drug addictions, Bipolar, Motor symptoms of Huntingtons, Parkinsons, and other movement disorders
Catecholomine hypothesis
Depression is caused by low levels of serotonin
SO, TCA's block reuptake of norepinephrine, serotionin and/or domanine at nerve synapses so it stays in the system
Schizo vs Depression re: Serotonin
Schizo: Too much serotonin
Depression: Not enough serotonin
Tofranil
Imipramine
Treats enuresis
TCA
Anafranil
Clormipramine
TCA
Treats OCD
Amitryptyline and Doxepin
TCAs
SEs of TCAs
Anticholinergic SEs
Cardiotoxic - tachycardia, palpitation, hypertension, cardiac arrythmia
Anticholinergic SEs
Confusion, drowsiness, wight gain, fine tremor
SSRIs
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
1. What are they
2. What do they treat
3. Why are they better than TCAs (3 reasons)
1. New antidepressants
2. Treat melancholic depression
3. Less cardiotoxic
Less likely for cognitive impairment
More rapid onset
SEs of SSRIs
Gastrointestinal problmes (Nausea and constipation/diahrrea) insomnia, dizziness and tremor
Other uses for SSRIs (4)
OCD, Bulimia, PTSD and Panic Disorder
Prozac
Fluoxetine
SSRI
Paxil
Paroxetine
SSRI
Zoloft
Sertraline
SSRI
MAOIs
Monomine Oxidase Inhibitors
1. When used
2. What does it treat
3. How
1. Only used when no response to a TCA or an SSRI
2. Treats atypical depression symptoms (anxiety, hypersomnia)
3. Inhibits the enzyme that helps block dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin
SEs of MAOIs
Anticholinergic SEs
Insomnia, agitation, confusion, weight gain, tremor, rash, hypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crisis
1. What is it
2. What causes it
1. SE of MAOIs
2. Can occur if MAOIs are taken with barbituates, antihistamines, amphetamines or foods with the amino acid tyramine (aged cheese and meats, bananas)
Isocarboxadid
Phenelzine
Tranylcypromine
MAOIs
Buproprion
1. Neuros
2. What is it
3. What does it treat (2 things)
Wellbutrin
1. NDRI (Norepinephrine Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor)
2. New antidepressant
3. Treats major depresion and the depressive phase of bipolar
Treats people who don't respond well to other antidepressants
Zyban
1 What is it
2 Neuros
Wellbutrin's name when used for smoking cessation
NDRI (Norepinephrine Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor)
Venlafazine
1. What is it
2. Neuros
3 What does it treat (3)
4. Benefits
1. Effexor -New antidepressant
2. SNRI (Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor)
3. Depression, OCD and GAD
4. Faster onset, less dangerous re SEs
New antidepressants
1. What do they treat
2. Benefits (3)
Treats Maj Dep and depressive phase of bipolar
Fewer anticholinergic SEs
Less cardiotoxic than TCA's re: overdose
No sexual dysfunctions
Venlazaxine SE
Increases blood pressure- need frequent heart monitoring
Nefazodone - what is it?
Serzone
SARI
Serotonin-2 antagonists/Reuptake Inhibitors
Nefazodone SEs
(Serzone)
Dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, vision problems and confusion
Trazodone
Desyrel
SARI
Serotonin-2 antagonists/Reuptake Inhibitors
Trazodone SEs
Sedation, dizziness, nausea, headache
Lithium
1. What does it do?
2. How
1. Reduces manic symptoms and mood swings of Bipolar
2. Reuptakes serotonin and norepinephrine
Lithium Toxicity
1. Symptoms
2. How to prevent
Major danger when dose is too high
Diarrhea, nausea, slurred speech, sedation, loss of coordination, fine hand
tremor, seizures, coma and death
2. Monitor serum levels
Anticonvulsant drugs that act as mood stabilizers
1. When would you use it
2. Who does it treat
3. Who is it better for
1. Affects serotonin levels
2. Treats people who don't respond to lithium
3. Better than lithium for rapid cyclers and Dysphoric Mania
Carbamazapine SEs
Dizziness, ataxia, visual disturbances, anorexia, nausea and rash
Tolerance develops quickly
Blood monotoring required
Valproic acid
Depakote
Anticonvulsant drug that is a mood stabilizer
Conazepam
Klonipin
Anticonvulsant drug that is a mood stabilizer
Carbamazapine
1. What is it
2. Who is it best for (2)
3. How does it work?
Tegretol
Anticonvulsant drug that is a mood stabilizer
2. Best for rapid cyclers and people with dysphoric mania
3. Affects serotonin levels
Barbituates
1.How do they work?
2. Problems
1.Interrupt impulses to the RAS (reticular activating system)

2.Rarely prescribed because of lethal effects
Withrawal symptoms can be life threatening
Frequently involved in suicides and accidental deaths
Amorbarbital
Pentobarbital
Secobarbital
Pentobarbital
Barbituates
Benzodiazepines
1. What's it used for (6)
2. How does it work?
Most widely used psychatric medication
1.Useful for anxiety, sleep disturbances, seizures, cerebral palsy, alcohol withdrawal, and disorders involving muscle spasms

2. Stimulates GABA
Benzodiazepines: Most common SEs
Drowsiness, slurred speech, ataxia
1.Alprazolam
2.Oxazepam
3.Triazolam
4.Chordiazepoxide
5.Diazepam
Benzos
Lorazepam
Ativan
Benzo
Azapirone
1. What is it?
2. What makes it different (3)
1. Anxiolytic
2.
No sedation
Not addictive
Not immediately effective - takes several weeks
Beta Blocker
Propanolol (Inderal)
Beta Blocker Treats (5)
High blood pressure, Cardiovascular disorders, migraines, glaucoma, physical symptoms of anxiety (sweating, tremor, etc)
How Beta Blockers work
Block adrenergic receptors that respond to epinephrine and norepiniphrine - diminishes the exitatory response of epenephrine and norepinephrine
1. Propanolol SE
2. When lethal?
3. Stopping abruptly?
(Beta blocker)
1. Bradycardia, shortness of breath, nausea, depression and dizziness

2.Lethal for people with respiratory problems

3. Stopping abruptly causes sweating, headache and cardiac arrythmias
Narcotic-Analgesics
Opioids
Used to treat diahrrea and coughs
What opioids do
Short lived "rush" of euphoric feelings followed by
tranquility, drowsiness, apathy, decreased activity and impaired attention and momory
Atypical antipsychotics and motor symptoms
Alleviates motor symptoms of Huntingtons and Parkinsons
Dopamine hypothesis
Schozo is caused by overactivity of dopampine receptors. SO
Traditional antipsychotics block them
Opioid tolerance and withdrawal
Users become dependent to avoid withdrawal symptoms
Flu symptoms
Nausea, cramps, fever, joint pain, insomnia
Methadone
1. What's it do
2. Addiction/withdrawal
3. How taken
1. Opioid used for herioin detox

2. Nearly as addictive but withdrawal symptoms milder

3. Can be taken orally to avoid syringe heroin use
Amphetamines
1. What is it?
2. How does it work?
1. Psychostimulant used for narcolepsy and ADHD

2. Release norepinephrine and dopamine THEN block their reuptake
Methylphenidate
1. Treats
2. Neuro
1. Treats ADHD in children and adults

2. Release norepinephren and dopamine THEN block their reuptake
1. Amphetamine SEs
2. Prolonged use
1. Restlessness, insomnia, poor appetite, tremor, palpitations and cardiac arrhythmia.

2. Prolonged use can lead to a psychotic state that looks like Paranoid schizo
Methylphenidate SEs
(Ritalin)
Dysphoria, euphoria, irritability, anxiety, decreased appetite, insomnia
Drug Holidays
Used to prevent growh suprression associated with Ritalin
Resperidone
1. How does it work
2. SEs
1. Act on D4 and other dopamine receptors
2.
Anticholinergic SEs
Agranolcytosis - need careful blood monitoring
NMS
Fluphenazine
1. What is it
2. How does it work
1. Traditional antipsychotic
2. Blocks dopamine receptors (especially D2 receptors)
Fluphenazine
3. Side Effects
Anticholinergic SEs
EPS, especially TD
NMS
EPS examples
Extrapyramidal SEs
Parkinsonism, akathisis, acute dystonia (muscle spansms in mouth, face and neck)
Atypical antipsychotics
4. Problem
5. SEs
4. Slower onset than traditional
5. NMS, Anticholinergice effects, lowered seizure threshold, sedation
Agranulocytosis - careful blood monitoring
TCA overdose
Lethal - small quantities for suicidal clients
Ataxia, impaired concentration, agitation, fever, arrythmia, delirium, seizures and coma
Fluoxetine
Prozac
SSRI
Imipramine
TCA
Treats enuresis
Clomipramine
TCA
OCD
Wellbutrin
1. What is it
2. How does it work?
1. Buproprion - Newer antidepressant
2. Norepineptrine Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor (NDRI)
Zyban
The name Wellbutrin is called when it is used for smoking cessation
Effexor
1. What is it
2. How does it work?
1. Newer antidepressant
2. SNRI - Serotonin, Norepinephirne Reuptake Inhibitor
Effexor
3. Uses
4. Benefits (2)
5. SE
3. Depression, OCD and GAD
4. Less dangerous than TCAs, faster onset
5. May increase blood pressure
Nefazodone
1. What is it
2. What does it treat
3. SEs
1.Serzone - neweer antidepresant
Serotonin-2 antagonists/reuptake inhibitors
2.Treat the depressive phase of Bipolar
3.Sleepiness, dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision and confusion
Trazodone
1. What is it
2. What does it treat
3. SEs
1.Serotonin-2 antagonists/reuptake inhibitors
2. Newer antidepressant that also treats Bipolar depressive phase
3. Sedation, dizziness, nausea and headache
Buproprion
1. What is it
2. Benefits (4)
3. Problems (2)
1.Newer antidepressant - Wellbutrin
2. Fewer anticholinergic SEs than TCAs, Less cardiotoxic than TCAs, No sexual dysfunction, Good for people who don't respond to other antidepresssants
3. May aggravate preexisting psychosis and seizures
Lithium SEs
Fine hand tremor, nausea, polyuria and polydipsia
Depakote
Valproic acid
Anticonvulsant for Bipolar
Klonopin
Clonazepam
Anticonvulsant for Bipolar
Tegretol
Carbamazepine
Anticonvulsant for Bipolar
Sedatives-Hypnotics (3)
1. They are dose dependent, which means (low doses, moderate and high)
Barbiturates, anxiolytics and alcohol
Low doses - reduce arousal and motor activity
Moderate doses - Sedation and sleep
High doses - anasthesia, coma and death
Sedative-Hypnotic Withdrawal
1. When does it happen
2. What happens
3. Extreme effects
1. Happens with abrupt cessation
2. Tremors, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, paranoia
3. hallucinations, delirium and deadly seizures
Cross tolerance
Happens with Sed-Hyps
When you become tolerant to one, you can easily develop tolerance for the others
Valium
Diazepam
Benzo
Xanax
Alprazolam
Benzo
Serax
Oxazepam
Benzo
Ativan
Lorazepam
Benzo
Librium
Chlrodiazepoxide
Benzo
Benzos-problem
Relaxed feeling can lead to psychological AND physical dependence
Benzo withdrawal
1. Severe withdrawal symptoms
2. Rebound hyperexitability happens with abrupt cessation - seizures, depersonalization, panic and stroke
Propanolol (Inderal)
Beta blocker
Percodan
Opioid
Narcotic-Analgesic
Dilaudid
Opioid
Narcotic-Analgesic
Heroin
Opioid
Narcotic-Analgesic
Codeine
Opioid
Narcotic-Analgesic
Demerol
Opioid
Narcotic-Analgesic
Opioid
1. SEs
2. Toxicity
Decreased visual acuity, increased perspiratino, constipation nausea and vomiting
2. Shallow breathing, muscle rigidity, catalepsy, decreased BP, convulsions and death
Methylphenidates contraindicated for people with (6)
Anxiety
Anorexia
Severe hypertension
Functional psychosis
Drug/Alcohol abuse
Tourettes/motor tics