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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cytotoxtic T cells (CTL, Tc)
CD8+ cells that bind to MHC Class I, and are a critical component of cell-mediated immunity.
T-Helper, Type I
TH1 cells activate phagocytic cells using cytokines(IFN-γ, IL-2) (cell-mediated immunity). Carries CD4+, and binds MHC-II.
T-Helper, Type II
TH2 cells help B-cells differentiate into plasma cells that make Abs (humoral immunity). Secretes cytokines (IL-4,5,6) to that end. Carries CD4+, binds MHC-II.
T-cell Receptor
Recognises Ag bound either to MHC-I or II. Most recognise only protein Ags. Clonally distributed on T-cells, homologous to Ig.
Antigen Processing
Steps involved in converting an Ag peptide into an MHC-bound peptide that T-cells can recognise.
Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)
Dimer of TAP-1 and TAP-2; transports peptide Ag from cytosol into ER lumen where it can bind to MHC.
Type I Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome
Defect: TAP; can't bind intracellular Ag to MHC-I, thus CD8+ cells not activated.
Sxs: Susceptibility to viral infection.
The catalytic core of an ancient ubiquitin-tagged protein degradative pathway that generates peptide fragments for MHC-I to present.
Invariant Chain (I-i)
"caps" an MHC-II while it's in the ER, so that it doesn't bind any internal Ags until it is exuded onto the cell surface.
The invariant chain is chopped up in an endosome so that only CLIP remains. DM from HLA-DMA and HLA-DMB genes remove the CLIP, activating the MHC-II.
MHC Class-I molecule
Presents intracellular Ag to CD8+ cells. Has a heavy chain with 3 domains (α1, 2, 3) and a light chain with 1 domain (β2). β2 is not tethered. α1 and 2 make up the peptide-binding groove, which binds shorter 9-AA long Ags. All cells express MHC-I. Those that do not are killed by NK cells. MHC-I expression is ↑'d by IFN-γ.
MHC Class II
Presents extracellular Ag to CD4+ cells. Has 4 domains, α1 and β1 make up the peptide-binding groove, which binds longer 13-25-AA long Ags. Expressed on macs, B-cells, and dendritic cells (all APCs), ↑'d by IL-4.
anchor residues
Certain invariant AA-side chains on peptide Ags that form a peptide-binding motif, binding to a certain MHC isotype.
MHC Restriction
In addition to recognising a specific Ag, each T-cell only recognises a specific allele of MHC. Thus, the right Ag on the wrong MHC will not activate the T-cell. Restriction results from the CD4/8 co-receptor.
Gene Complex
a cluster of closely linked genes that are functionally or structurally related.
a set of alleles of a gene complex on one chromosome. The 3 genes encoding the MHC-I molecule make up an haplotype that is usually inherited together.
coisogenic strains
Inbred strains that differed only at one gene, such as a single HLA-gene.
Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR)
A test for histocompatibility between two people. Lymphocytes from them are mixed. The 'stimulator' WBCs are irradiated, and cause the responder cells to clonally expand (CD4) or differentiate (CD8) if there is discompatibility.
Viral/bacterial products that bind to MHC-II (but not at reg. binding site) and non-specifically activate T-cells with a particular V-β segment. This random polyclonal activation dilutes Ag-specific response, and may cause toxic shock syndrome (cytokine storm from activated polyclonal T-cells)
Polypeptides that associate with TCR via charged transmembrane residues, and confers signal transduction capability.
T-cell accessory molecules
Various invariant molecules that interact with ligants on APCs, ↑g adhesion. Examples include CD2, LFA-1, ICAM-3.
An adjuvant is needed to initiate the "danger signal" and activate B7 expression on APCs. This B7 binds to CD28 on naive T-cells, and activates them.
ankylosing spondylitis
↑'d RR risk with HLA-B27 = 90
Type I Diabetes MHC risks
DR3 and DR4 make RR = 20, DR2 is protective (RR = 0.2)