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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How are carbohydrates defined structurally?
Polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones
What is a protein?
A polymer of amino acids.
Sucrose is a ____?
disaccharide
What is the structure of an amino acid?
An alpha-carbon attached to a carboxyl group, an amino group, and a variable R group.
How do amino acids bond?
Peptide Bonds
Starch and glycogen are ____?
polysaccharides
What is a complex carbohydrate?
A polymer of monosaccharides.
What are the two structures commonly taken by monosaccharides?
Linear and cyclic
How do monosaccharides bond to each other?
Via glycosidic/acetal bonds by alpha-1,6 or alpha-1.4 linkage
What s(x) of carb's does equilibrium lie toward?
Cyclic
How are lipids classified according to solubility?
Amphipathic (hydrophobic and hydrophilic)
Saturated fatty acids are (bent, straight) in shape.
straight (no double bonds)

Non-saturated = bent (double bonds)
How are cyclic carb's fromed from the open chain carb's?
intramolecular attack of the c-4 or c-5 hydroxyl group on the carbonyl group at c-1 or c-2
(Forms a hemiacetal: R-O-C-OH)
What are the components of a phophoglyceride and how are they linked?
Two fatty acids, a phosphate, and an alcohol attached to a glycerol backbone. Linked by ester and phophoester bonds.
How is an acetal (R-O-C-O-R') formed?
By linkage of a hemiacetal (R-0-C-0H) and an alcohol via elim. of H2O
What are triglycerides?
3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone.
What are the purines?
Adenine and Guanine (6-member ring attached to a 5-member ring)
What are the pyrimidines?
Cytosine and Thymine (6-membered rings)
What are the noncovalent forces responsible for the interaction between A.A. side chains and other molecules?
Ionic (electrostatic), hydrophobic, Van der Waals, hydrogen bonds
What are the nonpolar, aliphatic (hydrophobic) A.A.'s
Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine, Proline, Isoleucine
What are the polar, uncharged A.A.'s
Serine, Threonine, Cysteine, Methionine, Asparagine, Glutamine
What are the aromatic A.A.'s and their pKa
Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan (10)
What are the positively charged A.A.'s
Lysine (10.5), Arginine (12.5), Histidine (6.0)
What are the negatively charged A.A.'s and their pKa
Aspartate, Glutamate (4.0)
What is Kp?
Kp = water-oil partition coeff.

Kp=[Sw]/[So]

Measure of hydropathy
If Kp>1, hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
hydrophilic
What is delta G(oil-water)
delta G(oil-water) = -1.36 log(Kp)
If delta G(oil-water) is positive, hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Hydrophobic = +
Hydrophilic = -
Apathetic = 0 (gly, tyr, cys)
What are nucleic acids
macromolecules made from ribonucleic or deoxyribonucleic building blocks
What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
1. A purine or pyrimidine base
2. A monosaccharide of ribose or deoxyribose
3. An inorganic phosphate
What is glycogen?
A starch-like form of glucose.
How many residues are in glycogen and what is the shape of glycogen?
10,000-20,000; bush-like
Where is glycogen located in the cell?
Cytosol
What are the biological roles of glycogen?
1.Maintains blood gluc. levels
2.Provides quick energy for intense exercise
Give two examples of amphipathic molecules
fatty acids
phophoglycerides
Describe the steroid nucleus
3, 6-membered rings
1, 5-membered ring
Describe the sterol subclass of steroids
Hydoxyl group on the A-ring, hydrocarbon tail on the D-ring
What is the general structure of a purine?
6-membered ring w/2 N's and 3 double bonds attached to a 5 member ring w/2 N's and 2 double bonds
What is the general structure of a pyrimidine
6 membered ring w/2 N's and 3 double bonds
List the Contituent bases and nucleosides of DNA and RNA
Base Nucleoside
Adenine Adenosine
Guanine Guanosine
Cytosine Cytidine
Thymine Thymidine
Uracil Uridine
What is a nucleoside?
A nitrogenous base att. to a sugar w/o phosphate
How are the bases and ribose/deoxyribose joined in a nucleotide?
Via N-glycosidic linkage
How are the sugar and phosphate groups joined in a nucleotide?
Via phosphoester bonds
What are the ring substituents of purines and pyrimidines?
-NH2, =0, and CH3
What are the functions of lipids?
1. Provide energy
2. Form membrane s(x) comp's
3. Hormones (steroids)
4. Fat-soluble vitamins