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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The nucleic acid polymer of which genes are made
gene
a unit of genetic information
genome
The entire genetic information of an individual
macromolecule
Large polymeric molecule; in living cells especially DNA, RNA, protein o ploysaccharide
metabolism
The process by which nutrient molecules are transported and transformed within the cell to release energy and to provide new cell material
nucleic acid
Polymer made of nucleotides that carries genetic information
replication
Duplication of DNA prior to cell division
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Nucleic acid that differs from DNA in having ribose in place of deoxyribose and having uracil in place of thymine
ribosome
The cell's machinery for making proteins
bacteria
Primitive, relatively simple, single-celled organisms that lack a cell nucleus
cell
The cell is the basic unit of life. Each cell is surrounded by a membrane and usually has a full set of genes that provide it with the genetic information necessary to operate
differentiation
Progressive changes in the structure and gene expression of cells belonging to a single organism that leads to the formation of different types of cell
phospholipid
A hydrophobic molecule found making up cell membranes and consisting of a soluble head group and two fatty acids both linked to glycerol phosphate
protein
Polymer made from amino acids that does most of the work in the cell
cytoplasm
The portion of a cell that is inside the cell membrane but outside the nucleus
membrane
A thin flexible structural layer made of protein and phospholipid that is found surrounding all living cells
messenger RNA (mRNA)
The class of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from the genes to the rest of the cell
eukaryote
Higher organism with advanced cells, which have more than a one chromosome within a compartment called the nucleus
nucleus
An internal compartment surrounded by the nuclear membrane and containing the chromosomes. Only the cells of higher organisms have nuclei.
prokaryote
Lower organism, such as bacterium, with a primitive type of cell containing a single chromosome and having no nucleus
chromosome
Structure containing the genes of a cell and made of a single molecule of DNA
Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)
A bacterium commonly used in molecular biology
Archaebacteria (Archaea)
Type of bacteria forming a genetically distinct domain of life. Includes many bacteria growing under extreme conditions
Eubacteria
Bacteria of the normal kind as opposed to the genetically distinct Archaebacteria
species
A group of closely related organisms with a relatively recent common ancestor. Among animals, species are populations that breed among themselves but not with individuals of other populations. No satisfactory definition exists for bacteria or other organisms that do not practice sexual reproduction.
transcription
process by which information from DNA is converted into it's RNA equivalent
translation
Making a protein using the information provided by messenger RNA
diploid
Possessing two copies of each gene
haploid
Possessi only a single copy of each gene
pathogenic
Disease causing
F-plasmid
A particular plasmid which confers ability to mate on its bacterial host, Escherichia coli
plasmid
Circular molecule of double stranded helical DNA which replicates independently of the host cell's chromosomes. Rare linear plasmids have been discovered.
gram-negative bacterium
Type of bacterium that has both an inner (cytoplasmic) membrane plus an outer membrane which is located outside the cell wall
gram-positive bacterium
Type of bacterium that has only an inner (cytoplasmic) membrane and lacks an outer membrane
antibiotics
Chemical substance that inhibit specific biochemical processes and thereby stop bacterial growth selectively; that is, without killing the patient too
bacteriocin
A toxic protein made by bacteria to kill other, closely related, bacteria
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that elongates strands of DNA, especially when chromosomes are being replicated
penicillin
An antibiotic made by a mold called Penicillium, which grows on bread producing a blue layer of fungus
PCR
Polymerase chain reaction
vector
In molecular biology a vector is a molecule of DNA which can replicate and is used to carry cloned genes or DNA fragments
nuclear envelope
Envelope consisting of two concentric membranes that surrounds the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
cristae
The internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion
endoplasmic reticulum
Internal system of membranes found in eukaryotic cells
Golgi apparatus
A membrane bound organelle that takes part in export of materials from eukaryotic cells
lysosome
A membrane bound organelle of eukaryotic cells that contains degradative enzymes
membrane-bound organelles
Organelles that are separated from the rest of the cytoplasm by membranes
mitochondrion
Membrane-bound organelle found i eukaryotic cells that produces energy by respiration
nuclear pore
Pore in the nuclear membrane though which the nucleus communicates with the cytoplasm
organelle
Subcellular structure that carries out a specific task. Membrane bound organelles are separated from the rest of the cytoplasm by membranes but other organelles such as the ribosome are not.
germ line cells
Reproductive cells producing eggs or sperm that take part in forming the next generation
chlorophyll
Green pigment that absorbs light during photosynthesis
somatic cells
Cells making up the body but which are not part of the germ cell line.
entamoeba
A very primitive single-celled eukaryote that lacks mitochondria
fermentation
A biochemical process that releases energy without oxygen or light
Giardia
A very primitive single-celled eukaryote that lacks mitochondria
domain (of life)
Highest ranking group into which living creatures are dived, based on the most fundamental genetic properties
genus
A group of closely related species
kingdom
Major subdivision of eukaryotic organisms, in particular the plant, fungus and animal kingdoms
phylum
Major groups into which animals are divided, roughly equivalent in rank to the divisions of plants or bacteria
budding
Type of cell division seen in yeast in which a new cell forms as a bulge on the mother cell, enlarges and finally separates
non-coding DNA
DNA sequences that do not code for proteins or functional RNA molecules
apoptosis
Programmed suicide of unwanted cells during development or to fight infection.
gametophyte
Haploid phase of a plant, especially of lower plants such as mosses and liverworts, where it forms a distinct multicellular body.
germline cell
Cell capable of forming gametes and so contributing to the next generation animals.
totipotent
Capable of giving rise to a complete multicellular organism
parasite
An organism or genetic entity that replicates at the expense of another creature
virion
A virus particle
virus
Subcellular parasite with genes of DNA or RNA which replicates inside the host cell upon which it relies for energy and protein synthesis. In addition it has an extracellular form, in which the virus genes are contained inside a protective coat.
bacteriophage
A virus that infects bacteria
rickettsia
Type of degenerative bacterium that is an obligate parasite and infects the cells of higher organisms
immunization
Process of preparing the immune system for future infection by treating the patient with weak or killed versions of the infectious agent
vaccination
Artificial induction of the immune response by injecting foreign proteins or other antigens.
DNA virus
A virus whose genome consists of DNA
plasmid
Self-replicating genetic elements that are sometimes found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. They are not chromosomes nor part of the host cell's permanent genome. Most plasmids are circular molecules of double stranded DNA although rare linear plasmids and RNA plasmids are known.
retrovirus
Type of virus which has its genes as RNA in the virus particle but converts this to a DNA copy inside the host cell by using reverse transcriptase
RNA virus
A virus whose genome consists of RNA
viroid
Naked single-stranded circular RNA that forms a stable highly based-paired rod-like structure and replicates inside infected plant cells. Viroids do not encode an proteins but possess self-cleaving ribozyme activity
prion
Distorted disease-causing form of a normal brain protein which can transmit infection
transposable element or transposon
Segment of DNA that can move as a unit from one location to another, but which always remains part of another DNA molecule