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15 Cards in this Set

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2. Discuss the concepts of homologous chromosome, diploidy,haploidy. What characteristics are share between two chromosomes consider to be homologous?
homologous chrmsme shre properties: overall lenght,position cetromere(metacentric,submetacentric, acrocentric, telocentric)
homologous not identical but similiar
diploidy 2n-both memberss of homologous pair of chromosomes are present humans 46
haploid n-contains one chromosome of each homologous pair of chromosomes human 23
What characteristics are share between two chromosomes consider to be homologous?
the change from a diploid(2n) to haploid(n) occurs during reduction division whn tetrads become dyads during meiosis I.
refering to # human chrmsme, prmary spermatocyte(2n=46)becomes two secondary spermatocytes each with n=23
interphase
interphase-intial stage of cell cycle replication of DNA of each chromosome (S-Phase) synth DNA)
-no DNA synthesis occurs before and after interphase GI & GII(G2)
interphase-absent visible chromosomes
what genetic material is partitioned into daughter cell during nuclear division___________.complex and precise.
karyokinesis
what do we call cytoplasmic division?less complex than karyokinesis*
cytokenesis
cytoplasmic organelles either replicate themselves, arise from existing membrane structure or are synthesized_______(anew) in each cell.
de novo
What is going during G1,G2 and interphase S-phase?
intesive metabolic activity, cell growth, and cell differentiation
What happens by the end of G2 cell size?
the volume of the cell has roughly doudble, DNA is replicated, and Mitosis is intaited
What is G1 an interesting in study of cell proliferation and its controll?
cell either withdraws from the cycle or becomes quiescent and enter the G0 STAGE(don't proliferate)
or become committed to initiating DNA synthesis and completing the cycle
4) Describe the events that characterize each stage of mitosis?
interphase_chrmsme extended,uncoiled form chromatin
there are five stages of mitosis*
prophase-chrms coil up,shrten,centrioles divide&move apart
prometaphase:chrm clrly dble strctre, centrle reach oppste poles,spindle fibers form
metaphase:centromere aling on metaphase plate
anaphase: centromeres split and daughter chromosomes migrate to opposite poles.motor proteins,daught
telophase:daughter chromosomes arrive at the poles, cytokenesis commences
plan however form cell plate midle lamell
What is mitosis?*
cell division resulting in the rpoduction of two cells, each with same chromosome and genetic complement as the parent cell
during anaphase migration is made possible by the binding of spindle fibers to structure associated with centromere of each chromosome called_________. what?
Kinetochore
What does spindle fiber consist of ?
microtubules which further consist of subunits of protien tubilin. grow out of the opposite poles of cell two region containing centriole
what is refered to each sister chromatids when each sister chrmd dijoin move opposite of the pole(anaphase)?
daughter chromosomes

motor protien atp propel chromosome daughter to opposite end of cell
5# if an organism has diploid # of 16, how many chromatids are visible at the end of mitotic prophase? how many chromosomes are moving to each pole during anaphase of mitosis?
prophase double the chromoses2n=16-- 32
prophase 32 chromotids are visible

anaphase 16 and 16 different poles daughter chromosomes