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42 Cards in this Set

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developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and socail change througout the life span
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a two week period of rapid cell divison and devleops into an embryo
embryo
the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through teh second month.
fetus
the developing humna organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogens
agents, such as some chemicals, adn viruses, that can reach teh embryo or fetus drugin prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome
phsycial and cognitive abnomralities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking, in severe cases symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on teh cheek, to open teh mouth and search for the nipple
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repteated stimulation. as infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they lok away sooner.
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
schema
a concept or framework tha torganizes and interprets information.
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
accommodation
adapting one's currect understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
cognition
all the mental activites associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, adn communicating.
sensorimotor stage
in piaget's theory, teh stage (from birth to about two years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their senosry impressions and motor activities.
object permanence
the awareness tha tthings continue to exist even when not perceived.
preoperational stage
teh piaget's theory, the stage (from about two to six or seven years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend teh mental o perations of concrete logic.
conservation
the principle 9which piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain teh same despite changes in teh forms of objects.
egocentrism
in piaget's theory, teh inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.
theory of mind
people' ideas about their own and other's mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and teh behavior these might predict.
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication,k social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
concrete operational stage
in piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development(from about 6 or 7 to 11 year s of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
formal operational stage
in piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginnign about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; show in young children by their seekign closeness to the caregiver and showing ditress on serparation.
critical period
an optimal period shorty after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
imprinting
teh process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
basic trust
according to erik erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trust worthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
self concept
a sense of one's identity and personal worth
adolescnece
the transition period from childhood to adulhood, extending from puberty to independence.
puberty
teh period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
primary sex characteristics
teh body sturcutres that make sexual reporduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characterisitcs, such as female breasts and hips, male ovoice quality, and body hair
menarche
the first mentstrual period
identity
one's sense of self according to erikson, teh adolescent's taks is to solidfy a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
intimacy
in erikson's theory, teh ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary devlopmental task in late adolescence adn early adulthoo.d
menopause
the tiem of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to teh biological chanages a woman experiences as her abiltiy to reproduce declines.
alzheimer's disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and finally phsyuical functioning.
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
longitudinal study
reserach in which teh same poeople are restudied and retested over a long period.
crystallized intelligence
one's accumlated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily an dabstractly; tends to decrease during late adult hood.
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.