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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype
a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to teh prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comapirn grfeathered creatures to a prottypical bird, such as a robin).
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. cntrasts with teh usually speedier-but aksi nire erriroribe-use of heuristics.
heuristic
a simiple thinking stragey taht often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more rror prone thatn algorithms
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions.
confirmation bias
a tendency to serach for information tha tconfirms one's preconceptions
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
mental set
a tendency to apporach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in teh pas but my or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usualy functions; an impediment to problem solving.
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well tehy seem to represent, or mathch, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate teh accurary of one's beliefs and judgements
framing
thet way an issue is posed; how and issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
belief bias
teh tendency for one's preeexsiting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basbis on which they were formed has been discredited.
aritifical intelligence
the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learnign and understanding language.
computer neural networks
computer circuits tha tmimic the brain's interconnected nerual cells, performing tasks such as learnign to recognize visual patterns and smells.
language
our spoken, written or signed words and teh ways we comibine them to communicate meaning
phoneme
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
morpheme
in a language, teh smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate iwht and understand others.
semantics
the set of rules by which we dervie meanign from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language;' also teh study of meaning.
syntax
the rules for combingin words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
babbling stage
beginning at three to four monts, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
one word stage
the stage in sppech development, from about age one to two, druign which a child spaks mostly in single words.
two word stage
beginning about age two, teh stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements.
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram "go car" using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary" words
linguistic determinism
whorf's hypothesis that language determines teh way we think.
intelligence test
a method ofr assessing an individual's mental aptitudes adn comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
intelligence
mental quality consisting of teh ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
factor analysis
a statistical procedure tha tidentifies clusters of related items (called factors on a test; used to idnetify different dimesniosn of performance tha tunderlie one's total score.
general intellignce (g)
a general intelliegence factor that spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abiliteis and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
creativity
the ability to proudce novel and valuable ideas.
mental age
a meausre of intelligence test performance devised by binet; the chronological age tha tmost typically corresponds to a given level of performance. thus a child who does as well as teh average eight year old is said to have a mental age of eight
stanford binet
the widely used american revision (by terman at stanford university) of binet's orginal intelligence test
intellignce quotient (IQ)
defined orginally as teh raito of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 on contemporary intelligence test, teh average performance ofr a given age is assigned a socre of 100
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
achievement test
a test desgined to assess what a person has learned.
wechlsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS)
the wais i sthe most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
standardization
defining meaningulf scores by comparison with teh performance of a pretest "standardization group."
normal curve
the symmentrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. most ocres fall near the average, and fewer and fewr scores lie near the extremes.
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
intelligence
mental quality consisting of teh ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
factor analysis
a statistical procedure tha tidentifies clusters of related items (called factors on a test; used to idnetify different dimesniosn of performance tha tunderlie one's total score.
general intellignce (g)
a general intelliegence factor that spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abiliteis and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
creativity
the ability to proudce novel and valuable ideas.
mental age
a meausre of intelligence test performance devised by binet; the chronological age tha tmost typically corresponds to a given level of performance. thus a child who does as well as teh average eight year old is said to have a mental age of eight
stanford binet
the widely used american revision (by terman at stanford university) of binet's orginal intelligence test
intellignce quotient (IQ)
defined orginally as teh raito of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 on contemporary intelligence test, teh average performance ofr a given age is assigned a socre of 100
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
achievement test
a test desgined to assess what a person has learned.
wechlsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS)
the wais i sthe most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
standardization
defining meaningulf scores by comparison with teh performance of a pretest "standardization group."
normal curve
the symmentrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. most ocres fall near the average, and fewer and fewr scores lie near the extremes.
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting.
validity
the extent ot which a test measure or predicts what it is supposed to.
content validty
the extent ot which a test samples the behavior that is of interst (such as a drivin tets that samples drivin tasks).
criterion
teh behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as teh sat) is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
predictive validity
the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed ot predict; it is assesesd by computin gthe correlation between test scores and teh criterion behavior.
mental retardation
a conditoin of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficulty in adapting to teh demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
down syndrome
a conditoin of retardation an dassociated physyical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic make up.
heritability
the proportion of variation among indivuduals tha twe can attribute to genes. the heritablility of a trait may vary, depending on teh range of populations and environments studied.
sterotype threat
a self confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative sterotype.