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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningul objects and events.
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to teh brain's integration of sensory informaiton
ttop down processing
information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we constrcut perceptions drawing on our experience and expectation
psychophsics
the study of relationships between teh physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimuls 50 percent of teh time.
signal detection theory
a theory predictin how and when we detect the presence of a faint tstimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). assumes that tehre is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue
subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of teh time. we expereince teh differnece threshold as a just noticeable difference (also called just noticeable difference or ind)
weber's law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by constnat minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awreness on a particulary stimulus, as in teh cocktail party effect.
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. in sensation, the transorming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.
wavelength
the distance from teh peak of one light or sound wave to teh peak o fthe next. electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to teh long pulses of radio trasnmission
hue
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, adn so forth.
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined yb the wave's amplitude.
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of teh eye through which light enters.
iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms teh colored portion of th eey around teh pupil an dcontrols the size of the pupil opening.
lens
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
accommodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on teh retina
retina
the light sensitive inner surface of teh ey, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
acuity
teh sharpness of vision
nearsightedness
a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant ojects focus in front of the retina
farsightedness
a condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina
rods
retinal receptor that detctblack , white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones dont respond
cones
receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of teh retina and tha tcu tion in daylight or in well lit conditions. the cones detct fine detail adn ive rise to color sensations
optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from teh eye to the brain
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind spot because no receptor cells are located there
fovea
teh central focal point in th eretina, aroudn which the eye's cones cluster
feature detectors
nerve cells int he brain that respond to specific features of teh stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneoulsy; the brain's natural mode of information processing of rmany fucntions, including vision, contrasts with teh step by step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem soolving
young helmholtz trichromatic (three color theory)
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors on emost sensitive to red, one to green, on eto blue, which when stimulated in combination can produce teh perceptiuon of any color
opponent process theory
the theory that opposing retinal proecsses 9red green, yellow blue, white blac ) enable color vsion. for example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consisten color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
figure ground
the organization of the visual fied into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings ( the ground)
grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.
depth perception
the ability to see objcts in three dimension s although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on teh use of two eyes.
monoculuar cues
distance cues such as linear perspective and overlap, available to either eye alone
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; by comparing images from teh two eyeballs, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity (difference) between teh two images, the closer the object
convergence
a binoculuar cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which teh eyes converge inward when looking at an object
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement cretaed when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession
perceptual constancy
perceiving objecgts as unchangin (having consisten lighteness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field.
perceptual set
a mental predispostion to percveive one thing and not another.
human factors psychology
a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be adapted to human behaviors.
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversial cliaim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
stroboscopic movement
the animation thing, bunch of pics running in a sequence continuous movemetn
shape constancy
we perceive teh form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal images of them change.
size constancy
we perceive objects as having a constant size even while our distance from them varies.
lightness constancy
we perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies.
relative luminance
the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings.
Grouping has which 5 things involved
proximity, similiarity, continuity, connectedness, closure.
proximity
we group nearby figures together (three groups of two lines)
similarity
figures similar to each other we group together. (triangles and circles ex)
continuitity
we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than disconinutous ones (the semi circle thing)
connectedness
when tehy are uniform adn linked, we perceive spots lines, or areas as a single unit (the two balls connected by one line)
closure
we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object
muller lyer
the lines segments experimenter.
what are the two "FORM PERCEPTION"
figure and ground, and grouping
the TWo depth perceptions
binocular and monocular cues
binoculuar cues are (two)
retinal disparity, convergence
relative size
if we assume that two objects are similar in size, we perceive teh one that casts teh smaller retinal image as farther away.
interposition
one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer.
relative clarity
because light from distnat objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects
texture gradient
a gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance. objects far ,appear smaller and dense
relative height
perceive objects higher in field of vision as farther away. also, vertical lines, seem longer than horizontal.
relative motion (motion parallax)
as we move, objects that are stable appear to move. farther away, seem slower, closer = faster
linear perspective
parallel lines, such as railroad tracks appear to converge with distance. the more line converges, the farther.
light and shadow
nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes.
context effects
a given stimulus may trigger radically different perception, cuz of schemas. (if pilot, hear gear instead of cheer)
telepathy
mind to mind communication
clairvoyance
perceiving remote events, such as sensing friends house on fire
precognition
perceiving future events.
ganzfeld procedure
procuedure: put in chair, play white noise, shine red light through ping pong balls