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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pharmacology
the study of drugs and their interactions with living organisms.
rose hips
vitamin C
willow bark
aspirin
Vinca (periwinkle plant)
vincristine
beef or pork pancreas
insulin
saffron flower
Colchicine
Ephedra plant
Primatene, Bronkaid
sheeps wool
Lanolin
1806
morphine isolated from crude opium
1899
Aspirin was introduced
1912
Phenobarbital introduced for epilepsy
1922
Insulin isolated
foxglove plant (digitalis lanata)
digoxin
Belladonna
atropine, scopolamine
Opium poppy
morphine
mold
penicillin
1941
Penicillin was introduced
1957
Librium introduced for neurosis
1967
Inderal introduced for hypertension
1977
Tagamet introduced for peptic ulcers (first H2 blocker)
Chemical Name
Every drug has a chemical name that describes its molecular structure and distinguishes it from other drugs.
Generic Name
The pharmaceutical company along with the United States Adopted Names Council then determines a second name for the drug, its generic name.
Brand Name
When the FDA gives final approval, then the manufacturer alone selects a third name known as a trade or brand name, which is a registered trademark. Only the original manufacturer has the right to advertise and market the drug under the trade/brand name.
Drug Design (3)
1)Chemical name (molecular structure)
2)Generic Name (2nd name for the drug)
3)Brand Name (Manufacturer alone selects a 3rd name known as a trade/brand name--original manufacturer has right to advertise/market drug under brand/trade name)
What is the difference when a brand drug vs a generic drug is dictated by a physician?
Brand name drugs are CAPITALIZED whereas all generic drugs are not.
Name the generic component of Valium
diazepam
Enteric
A tablet that is covered with a special coating that dissolves in the intestines in order to avoid stomach upset.
Liquid
Medication comes in the form of either solution or suspensions.
Oral
the oral (by mouth) route is the most convenient route of administration. The oral route is routinely abbreviated as "p.o."
Inhalation
the route involves the inhaling of a drug in a gas or liquid form, usually designed for the lungs. Asthmatic conditions required inhalers such as a bronchial inhaler.
Subcutaneous
involves administration of a drug injected into the subcutaneous tissues (the fatty layer just under the dermis of the skin, but above the muscle layer).
Intravenous
(I.V.) This administration of a drug involves injection of liquid directly into a vein and may be done in one of 3 ways:

1)I.V. Push
2)I.V. Drip
3)I.V. Piggyback
Intrathecal
this route of administration involves the injection of a liquid within the sheath or meninges of the spinal cord.
Example: comes from the Greek word "Theka" meaning sheath.
Example: A spinal tap
IVPB
Intravenous piggy back
Drug weight measurements are expressed in terms of ____ and ______.
milligrams and kilograms

**More appropriately kilograms are used to describe a person's weight--abbreviated as kg
Name 3 types of drugs that are measured in units (UI).
1)penicillin
2)vitamins
3)all types of insulin
ad lib
as needed
q.o.d.
every other day
stat
immediately
mg
milligram
Name the generic component of Ativan.
lorazepam
Elixirs
a liquid--solutions that contain an alcohol and water base with sugar and flavoring.
Sublingual
medication is placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve slowly.
Parentral
Parenteral is a general term taken from the two Greek words "para" and "entero", which literally means "apart from the intestine". Technically parenteral means all routes of administration other than by mouth.
I.V. Push
Fluid is manually pushed into the I.V. in a very short period of time or fluid is pushed into an existing I.V. bottle and administered continuously over several hours.
OTC
over-the-counter
apothecary
from the Greek word and refers to a person who combines and distributes drugs.
The SI system is based on the ____ for weight measurements, the ____ for length measurements, and the ___ for volume measurements.
kilogram--for weight
meter--for length
liter--for volume
The metric system also includes liquid measurements expressed as ___ and ____.
liter and milliliter.
**Abbreviated as L and mL
kilogram
kg
milliliter
mL
p.r.n.
as needed
n.p.o.
nothing by mouth
q.h.
every hour
Dosage schedules are transcribed with ___.
periods
mcg
microgram
gtt.
drops (Latin word-guttae, often doctors will dictate as guttae)
Capsule
Comes in 2 varieties:

1)gelatin or soft capsule that contains liquid and is fat soluble.

2)powdered or granular form manufactured in 2 pieces that fit together.
Suspension
a liquid--contains fine, undissolved particles suspended in liquid.
Vaginal/Rectal
medication is absorbed via these routes. this route is reserved for certain clinical situations such as when the patient is vomiting and medication cannot be given orally
Intradermal
involves administration of a drug by injection into the dermis, the second layer of skin just below the epidermis
Intramuscular
involves administration of a drug injected into the belly (area of greatest mass) of a large muscle.
Endotracheal
this route of administration is used during emergency resuscitation measures or to deliver pulmonary drugs to intubated patients via an endotracheal tube.
SL
Sublingual
SUBQ
subcutaneous
1 kilogram
1000 g
The centimeter is equivalent to ____ of a ____.
1/100th of a meter.
milligram
mg
liter
L
Other drug measurements include (6)
1)unit
2)inch
3)drop
4)milliequivalent
5)percentage
6)ratio
Milliequivalents
(mEq) an equivalent is a molecular weight. It is expressed in grams.
h.s.
at bedtime
p.o.
by mouth
b.i.d.
twice a day
mEq
milliequivalent
gr
grains
Name the generic component of Serax.
oxazepam
Cream
a topical medication which is effused with water and oil.
Suppository
a solid base of glycerin or cocoa butter containing the drug, which is admininistered either rectally or vaginally.
Topical
a drug is applied directly to the skin, mucous membranes of the eyes,ears,nose, or throat.
I.V. Drip
a drug is mixed in a very small I.V. bottle and administered in drip form over several hours.
I.V.
Intravenous
IM
intramuscular
1 gram (g)
1000 milligrams
Pediatric doses are expressed as __/__/__.
mg/kg/day
*this indicates the amount of medicine per body weight per day.
Example: Pedialyte 15 mg/20 kg/t.i.d.
The basic measurement of length in the metric system is the ___.
meter
cubic centimeter
cc
When a physician dictates drug dosages and measurements, the transcriptionist may use ______, even if the physician does not dictate dosages in abbreviation.
abbreviations
p.c.
after meals
t.i.d.
three times a day
kg
kilogram
I.V.
intravenous (use periods to differentiate from IV which is Roman Numeral 4)
Drugs prescribed in generic form may be up to ___ _____ less than brand names.
1/2 percent
Tablet
dried, powered, compressed form
Transdermal
a multilayered disk consisting of a drug reservoir, a porous membrane, and a adhesive layer to hold it to the skin.
Transdermal
this route of administration differs from the topical route in that the drug is applied to the skin via physical delivery through a patch with a porous membrane for slow release.
I.V. Piggyback
A small secondary I.V. bag or bottle is connected through tubing to a port of an existing I.V. bottle
1 milligram
1000 micrograms
Metric system abbreviations are not followed by a __.
period
When a cube is formed that is 1 cm long on each side, it becomes a measurement of volume known as the ____ ____.
cubic centimeter
**abbreviated as cc
gram
g (not gm, which is obsolete or gr, which is the abbreviation for grain)
microgram
mcg
Units
(IU) some drugs are measured as units-- penicillin, vitamins and all types of insulin are measured in units.
a.c.
before meals
q.h.s.
at bedtime
q.d.
every day
q.i.d.
four times a day
mL
milliliter
g
gram
/
per