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44 Cards in this Set

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ABDOMINOCENTESIS (ab-dom-in-o-sen-TE-sis):
See PARACENTESIS
AMNIOCENTESIS (am-ne-o-sen-TE-sis):
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the sac (amnion) that surrounds the fetus in the uterus. The fluid contains cells from the fetus that can be examined to determine maturity, sex and congenital abnormalities.
ASPIRATION (as-peh-RA-shun): 
The withdrawal of fluid by suction through a needle or tube. The term "aspiration pneumonia" refers to pneumonia caused by inhalation into the lungs of food or gastric contents.
AUDIOGRAM (AW-de-o-gram):  
A test using sound waves of various frequencies (e.g., 500 Hz) up to 8000 Hz, which quantifies the extent and type of hearing loss.
AUSCULTATION (aw-skul-TA-shun): 
The process of listening for sounds produced within the body. This is performed with the aid of a stethoscope to determine the condition of the chest, abdominal organs or bowel sounds.
BIOPSY (BI-op-se):
Removal of a piece of tissue from the body and subsequent examination of the tissue under a microscope. The procedure is performed by means of a surgical knife, needle aspiration, or via endoscopic removal (using a forceps inserted through a hollow flexible tube.) An excisional biopsy means that the entire tissue to be examined is removed. An incisional biopsy is the removal of only a small amount of tissue.  A a needle biopsy indicates that tissue is pierced with a hollow needle and fluid is withdrawn for microscopic examination.
BONE MARROW BIOPSY (bon MAH-ro BI-op-se):
Removal of a small amount of bone marrow. The cells are then examined under a microscope. Often the hipbone (iliac crest) is used, and the biopsy is helpful in determining the number and type of blood cells in the bone marrow.
BRONCHOSCOPY (brong-KOS-ko-pe):
Insertion of a flexible tube (endoscope-bronchoscope) into the airway. The lining of the bronchial tubes can be seen and tissue may be removed for biopsy. The tube is usually inserted through the mouth, but can also be directly inserted into the airway during mediastinoscopy. Sedation is required for this procedure.
COLONOSCOPY (ko-lon-OS-ko-pe):
Insertion of a flexible tube (endoscope-colonoscope) through the rectum into the colon for visual examination. Biopsy samples may be taken and benign growths, such as polyps, can be removed through the endoscope. The removal of a polyp is called a polypectomy (pol-eh-PEK-to-me).
COLPOSCOPY (kol-POS-ko-pe):
The inspection of vaginal and cervical tissue through the insertion of a special microscope into the vagina. The vaginal walls are held apart by a speculum so that the cervix (entrance to the uterus) can come into view.
CONIZATION (ko-nih-ZA-shun):
The removal of a cone-shaped sample of uterine cervix tissue. This sample is then examined under a microscope for evidence of cancerous growth. The special shape of the tissue sample allows the pathologist to examine the transitional zone of the cervix, where cancers are most likely to develop.
CULDOCENTESIS (kul-do-sen-TE-sis):
The insertion of a thin, hollow, needle through the vagina into the cul-de-sac, the space between the rectum and the uterus. Fluid is withdrawn and analyzed for evidence of cancerous cells, infection, or blood cells.
CYSTOSCOPY (sis-TOS-ko-pe):
The insertion of a thin tube or cystoscope (endoscope) into the urethra and then into the urinary bladder in order to visualize the bladder. A biopsy of the urinary bladder can be performed through the cystoscope.
DIGITAL RECTAL EXAMINATION (DIG-ih-tal REK-tal eks-am-ih-NA-shun):
Physician inserts a gloved finger into the rectum. This procedure is used to detect rectal abnormalities and as a primary method in the detection of prostate cancer
DILATION AND CURETTAGE (di-LA-shun and kur-ih-TAJ):
A series of probes of increasing size are systematically inserted through the opening of the cervix. The cervix is thus dilated (widened) so that a curette (spoon-shaped instrument) can be inserted to remove tissue from the lining of the uterus. The tissue is then examined under a microscope. The abbreviation for this procedure is D&C.
SIGMOIDOSCOPY (sig-moy-DOS-ko-pe):
See PROCTOSIGMOIDOSCOPY
STRESS TEST:
This is an electrocardiogram taken during exercise. It may reveal hidden heart disease or confirm the cause of cardiac symptoms
ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY (e-lek-tro-kar-de-OG-rah-fe):
The connection of electrodes (wires or "leads") to the body to record electric impulses from the heart. The electrocardiogram is the actual record produced and it is useful in detecting abnormalities in heart rhythms and heart disorders. Abbreviation is EKG or ECG.
ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (e-lek-tro-en-sef-ah-LOG-rah-fe):  
The connection electrodes (wires or "leads") to the scalp to record electrical activity in the brain. The electroencephalogram is the actual record produced. It is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of epilepsy and other brain lesions and in the investigation of neurological disorders. It is also used to evaluate patients in a coma (brain inactivity) and in the study of sleep disorders. Abbreviation is EEG.
ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (e-lek-tro-mi-OG-rah-fe):
The insertion of needle electrodes into muscles to record electrical activity. This procedure detects injuries and diseases that affect muscles and nerves. Abbreviation is EMG.
ENDOSCOPY (en-DOS-ko-pe):
The insertion of a thin, tube-like instrument (endoscope) into an organ or cavity. The endoscope is placed through a natural opening (the mouth or anus), or into a surgical incision, as through the abdominal wall. Endoscopes contain bundles of glass fibers that carry light (fiberoptic); some instruments are equipped with a small forceps-like device that withdraws a sample of tissue for microscopic study (biopsy). Examples of endoscopy are bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, esophagoscopy, gastroscopy and laparoscopy.
ESOPHAGOSCOPY (eh-sof-ah-GOS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope through the mouth and throat into the esophagus. Visual examination of the esophagus to detect ulcers, tumors, or other lesions is possible.
ESOPHAGOGASTRODUODENOSCOPY (eh-SOF-ah-go-GAS-tro-du-o-den-NOS-ko-pe):
An endoscope is inserted through the mouth into the esophagus, stomach and first part of the small intestine. Also called EGD.
EXCISIONAL BIOPSY (ek-SIZ-in-al BI-op-se):
See BIOPSY.
FROZEN SECTION (fro-zen SEK-shun):
The quick preparation of a biopsy sample for examination during an actual surgical procedure. Tissue is taken from the operating room to the pathology laboratory and frozen. It is then thinly sliced and immediately examined under a microscope to determine if the sample is benign or malignant and to determine if the surgical margins are free of disease.
GASTROSCOPY (gas-TROS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope through the esophagus into the stomach for visual examination and/or biopsy of the stomach. When the upper portion of the small intestine is also visualized, the procedure is called EGD or esophagogastroduodenoscopy.
HOLTER ECG RECORDING (HOL-ter ECG re-KOR-ding):
The electrocardiographic record of heart activity over an extended period of time. The patient wears the Holter monitor performing normal daily activities. It detects and aids in management of heart rhythm abnormalities. Also called Holter monitoring.
HYSTEROSCOPY (his-ter-OS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope via the vagina, into the uterus for visual examination.
INCISIONAL BIOPSY (in-SIZ-in-al BI-op-se):
See BIOPSY.
LAPAROSCOPY (Iah-pah-ROS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope into the abdomen. After the patient receives a local anesthetic, a laparoscope is inserted through an incision in the abdominal wall. This procedure allows the doctor to view the abdominal cavity, the surface of the liver and spleen and the pelvic region. The laparoscope is often used to perform fallopian tube ligation as a means of preventing pregnancy.
LARYNGOSCOPY lah-rin-GOS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope into the airway in order to visually examine the voice box (larynx). A laryngoscope transmits a magnified image of the larynx through a system of lenses and mirrors. The procedure can reveal tumors and explain changes in the voice. Sputum samples and tissue biopsies are obtained by using brushes or forceps attached to the laryngoscope.
MEDIASTINOSCOPY (me-de-ah-sti-NOS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope into the mediastinum (space in the chest between the lungs and in front of the heart). A mediastinoscope is inserted through a small incision in the neck while the patient is under anesthesia. This procedure is used to biopsy lymph nodes and to examine other structures within the mediastinum.
NEEDLE BIOPSY (NE-dl BI-op-se):
See BIOPSY
OTOSCOPY (o-to-SKOP-ee):
A physician uses an otoscope inserted into the ear canal to check for obstructions (e.g., wax), infection, fluid, and eardrum perforations or scarring.
OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAM (of-thal-mo-SKOP-ic ek-ZAM):
A physician uses an ophthalmoscope to look directly into the eye, evaluating the lens for cataracts, and the optic nerve, retina, and blood vessels in the back of the eye.
PALPATION (pal-PA-shun):
Examination by touch. This is a technique of manual physical examination by which a doctor feels underlying tissues and organs through the skin.
PAP SMEAR:
The insertion of a cotton swab or wooden spatula into the vagina to obtain a sample of cells from the outer surface of the cervix (neck of the uterus). The cells are then smeared on a glass slide, preserved, and sent to the laboratory for microscopic examination. This test for cervical cancer was developed and named after the late Dr. George Papanicolaou. Results are reported as a Grade I-IV (I = normal, 11 = inflammatory, III = suspicious of malignancy, IV = malignancy).
PARACENTESIS (pah-rah-sen-TE-sis):
Surgical puncture of the membrane surrounding the abdomen (peritoneum) to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity. Fluid is drained for analysis and to prevent its accumulation in the abdomen. Also known as abdominocentesis.
PELVIC EXAM (PEL-vik ek-ZAM):
Physician examines the vagina and cervix and checks the uterus and ovaries for enlargement, cysts, tumors, or abnormal bleeding. This is also known as an "internal exam."
PERCUSSION (per-KUSH-un):
The technique of striking a part of the body with short, sharp taps of the fingers to determine the size, density, and position of the underlying parts by the sound obtained. Percussion is commonly used on the abdomen to examine the liver.
PROCTOSIGMOIDOSCOPY (prok-to-sig-moy-DOS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope through the anus to examine the first 10 to 12 inches of the rectum and colon. When the sigmoid colon is visualized using a longer endoscope, the procedure is called sigmoidoscopy. The procedure detects polyps, malignant tumors, and sources of bleeding.
PULMONARY FUNCTION STUDY (PUL-mon-nah-re FUNG-shun-STUH-de):
The measurement of volume and force of air taken into and exhaled from the lungs by means of an instrument called a spirometer. The test may be abnormal in patients with asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and occupational exposures to asbestos, chemicals, and dusts
THORACENTESIS (thor-ah-sen-TE-sis):
The insertion of a needle into the chest to remove fluid from the space surrounding the lungs (pleural cavity). After injection of a local anesthetic, a hollow needle is placed through the chest wall and into the space between the lungs and chest wall. Fluid is then withdrawn by applying suction. Excess fluid (pleural effusion) may be a sign of infection or malignancy. This procedure is used for diagnostic studies, to drain a pleural effusion, or to re-expand a collapsed lung (atelectasis).
THORACOSCOPY (tho-rah-KOS-ko-pe):
The insertion of an endoscope through an incision in the chest in order to visually examine the surface of the lungs.