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53 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
define organic chemistry
the study of molecules and compounds that contain carbon
define protoplasm
clear, jelly -like substance from which all our body cells are made. protoplasm is made mainly from elements 1-20 on the periodic chart. especially c,h,o, and n
define carbohydrates
simple sugars(monosaccharides)-one sugar
proteins
amino acids
triglycerides
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
define hydrocarbons
molecules that contaiin only hydrogen and carbon
name four hydrocarbons
methane, ethane,propane, butane
define isomers
same molecular formula different structure
what is glucose and fructose
sucrose
what is glucose and galactose
lactose
what is glucose and glucose
maltose
define starch and what type of saccharides is it
energy storage in plants
polysaccarides
define cellulose and what type of saccharide is it
most abundant organic molecule, examples are wood, paper, cotton, has no nutritional value,
polysaccharide
explain overall function of carbohydrates in the human body
in human, carbohydrates function as a source of chemical energy for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) which is needed to drive metabolic reactions
describe major physiological role of the following carbohydrate. glucose
blood sugar
describe major physiological role of the following carbohydrate. ribose and deoxyribose
monsaccharide, components of genetic material, ribonuclei acid (RNA) and deoxyribonuclei acid (DNA)
describe major physiological role of the following carbohydrate. glycogen
energy storage, in the liver and muscles
describe major physiological role of the following carbohydrate. sucrose
table sugar hydrolyzed(split) to glucose and fructose in intestines
define dipeptides
2 amino acids linked with one peptide bond
define tripeptides
3 amino acids linked with two peptide bonds
define polypeptides
chains of many amino acids (10-2000) molecular weight under 5000
define proteins
hundreds to thousands of amino acids, molecular weight 5000 or more
primary structure of proteins
amino acid sequence
secondary structure of proteins
coiling, pleated sheets, alpha helix due to hydrogen bonding
tertiary structure of proteins
folding of coils and pleats(three dimensions) due to disulifide bonds, hydorphilic and hydrophobic interactions and ionic bonding
quaternary
2 or more tertiary structures combined relative to one another
define denaturation
denaturation is the destruction of a proteins secondary (or higher) structure, which usually changes the protein's properites and renders it non-functional. Many proteins can easily be denatured by excess heat, pH imbalance, certain chemicals or even physical agitation.
describe major physiological role of the protein class structural
form the structural framework of various parts of the body. example karatin in the skin, hair, fingernails and collagen in connective tissue
describe major physiological role of the protein class regulatory
function as hormones which regulate various physiological processes. example insulin, which regulates blood sugar level
describe major physiological role of the protein class contractile
serve as contractile elements in muscle tissue. example myosin and actin proteins
describe major physiological role of the protein class immunological
serve as antibodies to protect the body against invading microbes
example gamma globulin(immunoglobulins)
describe major physiological role of the protein class transport
transport vital substances throughout the body. example hemoglobin (transports oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood)
describe major physiological role of the protein class catalytic
a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction but is not consumed or permanently changed. enzymes (such as amylase, lipase, and lactase) are catalytic proteins that function in regulating biochemical reactions there are other kinds of catalysts, such as calcium.
explain enzymes
reusable proteins that (usually speed up biological reactions without unfavorably affecting temperature, pressure, or pH. Enzymes are one kind of catalyst
explain the function of enzymes
enzymes function by forming a temporary enzyme-substrate complex. that is, the enzyme bonds to the molecules that it is supposed to work on(the substrate), causes some reaction to occur to that substrate, and then releases that substrate
describe carbohydr-ase
splits carbohydrates
describe protein-ase
splits proteins
lip-ase
splits lipids
dehydrogen-ase
removes hydrogen
transfer-ase
transfers a substance
kin-ase
adds a phosphate molecule
distiguish saturated fats
no double bonds only c-c bonds
distinguish monounsaturated fats
one double bond c=c
distinguish polyunsaturated fats
multiple double bonds c=c, c=c
decribe the major physiological role of the following lipid: fats
protection
insulation
energy storage
decribe the major physiological role of the following lipid: steroids
sex hormones
vitamin D
bile salts
cholestrerol
decribe the major physiological role of the following lipid: phospholipids
make up cell membranes
nerves/brain tissue
decribe the major physiological role of the following lipid: prostaglandins
local regulation
local hormones
define metabolism
all chemical reactions in the body, includes catabolism and anabolism
define catabolism
breaks larger molecules into smaller molecules
define anabolism
builds larger molecules from smaller molecules
define hydrolysis
(water breakdown) a process by which the addition of water breaks down a larger molecule into smaller molecules. this is the major process your body uses to digest food
dehydration synthesis
it involves the removal of water (dehydration) from the ends of 2 smaller molecules which results in the joining of these two molecules(synthesis) into one larger molecule